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1972–Actor, William Boyd, dies of complications from Parkinson's disease and heart failure in Laguna Beach, California, at age 77. He is best known for starring in the TV series Hopalong Cassidy. His character of Hopalong Cassidy was one the most highly merchandised for the Baby Boomer generation: there were Hopalong Cassidy watches, trash cans, cups, dishes, Topps trading cards, metal lunchboxes, comic books, and cowboy outfits.

BC 490–In the Battle of Marathon, the Athenians and their Plataean allies defeat the first Persian invasion force of Greece.

372–Jin Xiaowudi, age 10, succeeds his father, Jin Jianwendi, as Emperor of the Eastern Jin dynasty.

640–Sak K’uk’, Mayan Queen, dies.

1185–Byzantine Emperor, Andronikos I Komnenos, is brutally put to death in Constantinople, at age 67. He was handed over to the city mob and for three days he was exposed to their fury and resentment, remaining for that period tied to a post and beaten. His right hand was cut off, his teeth and hair were pulled out, one of his eyes was gouged out, and, among many other sufferings, boiling water was thrown in his face, punishment probably associated with his handsomeness and life of licentiousness. At last he was led to the Hippodrome of Constantinople and hung by his feet between two pillars. Two Latin soldiers competed as to whose sword would penetrate his body more deeply, and he was, according to the representation of his death, torn apart.

1213–During the Albigensian Crusade, Simon de Montfort, 5th Earl of Leicester, defeats Peter II of Aragon at the Battle of Muret.

1229–The Aragonese army, under the command of James I of Aragon, disembarks at Santa Ponça, Majorca, with the purpose of conquering the island.

1309–The First Siege of Gibraltar takes place in the context of the Spanish Reconquista pitting the forces of the Kingdom of Castile against the Emirate of Granada, resulting in a Castilian victory.

1362–Pope Innocent VI dies in Avignon, Papal States, at age 80.

1494–Francis I of France is born at Château de Cognac in Cognac, Duchy of Aquitaine. A prodigal patron of the arts, he initiated the French Renaissance by attracting many Italian artists to work on the Château de Chambord, including Leonardo da Vinci, who brought the Mona Lisa with him, which Francis had acquired. Francis' reign saw important cultural changes with the rise of absolute monarchy in France, the spread of humanism and Protestantism, and the beginning of French exploration of the New World.

1609–Henry Hudson begins his exploration of the Hudson River while aboard the Halve Maen.

1634–A gunpowder factory explodes in Valletta, Malta, killing 22 people and damaging several buildings.

1683–During the Austro-Ottoman War, several European armies join forces to defeat the Ottoman Empire.

1683–Afonso VI of Portugal dies at Sintra Palace in Sintra, Portugal, at age 40. At the age of three, Afonso suffered an illness that left him paralyzed on the left side of his body, which also made him mentally unstable.

1736–Burmese King, Hsinbyushin, is born in Moksobo, Burma. He was King of the Konbaung Dynasty of Burma (Myanmar) from 1763 to 1776.

1846–Robert Browning, 34, and Elizabeth Barrett, 40, are secretly married at St. Marylebone Church in London, England. They will leave for Italy together a week later.

1847–In the Mexican-American War, the Battle of Chapultepec begins.

1848–Switzerland becomes a Federal state.

1857–The SS Central America sinks about 160 miles east of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, drowning a total of 426 passengers and crew members, including Captain William Lewis Herndon. The ship was carrying 13 to 15 tons of gold from the California Gold Rush.

1869–Peter Roget, creator of the thesaurus, dies while on holiday in West Malvern, Worcestershire, England, at age 90. Roget’s first printed edition, in 1852, was called “Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases Classified and Arranged so as to Facilitate the Expression of Ideas and Assist in Literary Composition.” During his lifetime the work had 28 printings. Now, commonly called “Roget’s Thesaurus,” it is a catalogue of words organized by their meanings. It is widely used by writer’s in need of a similar word to replace a repetitive or less expressive word in a sentence.

1874–Historian and politician, François Guizot, dies in Saint-Ouen-le-Pin, France, at age 86. He was the 22nd Prime Minister of France.

1880–Editor, H.L. Mencken, is born Henry Louis Mencken in Baltimore, Maryland. He was also a satirist and author of The American Language.

1890–Salisbury, Rhodesia, is founded.

1897–Super-centenarian, Grietje Jansen-Anker, is born in Vlissingen, the Netherlands. She will live to the age of 112 (and 31 days).

1906–The Newport Transporter Bridge is opened in Newport, South Wales, by Viscount Tredegar.

1910–The premiere performance of Gustav Mahler's Symphony No. 8 takes place in Munich, Germany (with a chorus of 852 singers and an orchestra of 171 players).

1915–French soldiers rescue over 4,000 Armenian Genocide survivors stranded on Musa Dagh.

1919–Adolf Hitler joins the German Workers' Party (later the Nazi Party).

1919–Hairdresser, Frank Stallone, Sr., is born Francesco Staglione in Gioia del Colle, Apulia, Italy. His parents moved the family to America from Italy in 1932. Stallone served in the Army during World War II from 1940-1945. He was the father of actor, Sylvester Stallone, and actor-singer, Frank Stallone. He was married to Jackie Stallone.

1923–Southern Rhodesia (present-day Zimbabwe) is annexed by the United Kingdom.

1928–Actress, Katharine Hepburn, makes her stage debut in the play The Czarina.

1931–Country singer, George (Glenn) Jones, is born in Saratoga, Texas. He is best known for his big hit He Stopped Loving Her Today. A member of the Grand Ole Opry since 1956, Jones was inducted into the Country Music Hall of Fame in 1992, and was a Kennedy Center honoree in 2008. He was married to country singer, Tammy Wynette.

1933–Leó Szilárd, waiting for a red light on Southampton Row in Bloomsbury, England, conceives the idea of the nuclear chain reaction.

1934–Singer-songwriter, Leonard (Norman) Cohen, is born in Westmount, Quebec, Canada. He is best known for the songs Suzanne, So Long Marianne, Bird on a Wire, Joan of Arc, Hallelujah, and Famous Blue Raincoat.

1938–Adolf Hitler demands autonomy and self-determination for the Germans of the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia.

1940–The 17,000-year-old Lascaux Cave Paintings are discovered as four teenagers follow their dog when it disappears down a hole near Lascaux, France. The cave paintings are some of the best examples of art from the Paleolithic period.

1940–An explosion at the Hercules Powder Company plant in Kenvil, New Jersey, kills 51 people and injures over 200 others.

1942–The RMS Laconia, carrying civilians, Allied soldiers, and Italian POWs, is torpedoed off the coast of West Africa. It sinks killing many on board.

1943–Benito Mussolini, dictator of Italy, is rescued from house arrest on the Gran Sasso in Abruzzi, by German commando forces led by Otto Skorzeny.

1946–Dickie Peterson, bass player and lead singer for Blue Cheer, is born Richard Allan Peterson in Grand Forks, North Dakota.

1948–Elvis Presley moves with his parents to Memphis, Tennessee, at age 13.

1952–Strange occurrences, including a monster sighting, take place in Flatwoods, West Virginia.

1952–Musician, Neil Peart, is born in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. He is best known as the drummer and lyricist for the Canadian rock band Rush. As a drummer, Peart is well known for his technical skills and stamina. Over the years, his influences have migrated from strictly hard rock to incorporate jazz styles. As the principal lyricist of Rush, Peart's lyrics cover diverse subjects including philosophy and humanitarian themes, and he is a and self described bleeding-heart libertarian.

1953–U.S. Senator and future President, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, marries Jacqueline Lee Bouvier at St. Mary's Church in Newport, Rhode Island.

1958–Jack Kilby demonstrates the first integrated circuit.

1959–The long-running TV series, Bonanza, debuts as the first regularly scheduled TV program presented in color.

1959–The Soviet Union launches a large rocket, Lunik II, at the Moon.

1961–The African and Malagasy Union is founded.

1961–Actress, Marion Davies, dies of stomach cancer in Hollywood, California, at age 64. She worked in both the silent and sound eras of film. She appeared in the films The Florodora Girl, Polly of the Circus, Blondie of the Follies, Peg o’ My Heart, Going Hollywood, Page Miss Glory, Cain and Mabel, and Ever Since Eve.

1962–President John F. Kennedy, in a speech at Rice University, reaffirms that the U.S. will put a man on the Moon by the end of the decade.

1964–Canyonlands National Park is dedicated.

1964–The Beatles, on tour in America, perform at Boston Garden in Boston, Massachusetts.

1964–Television personality, Greg Gutfeld, is born Gregory John Gutfeld in San Mateo, California. He is also an author, political satirist, humorist, and libertarian. After working as an editor and staff writer for numerous magazines, Gutfeld moved to television in February of 2007, hosting Fox News Network's late night show Red Eye. In 2011, he also joined the panel on the Fox News show The Five. Since June 2015, Gutfeld has hosted The Greg Gutfeld Show.

1966–The TV series, The Monkees, debuts on NBC-TV. The show depicts the zany adventures of a loveable long-haired rock band, obviously modeled after The Beatles and their film A Hard Days Night. The group consists of Davy Jones, Mike Nesmith, Peter Tork, and Mickey Dolenz.

1966–Actor, Darren E. Burrows, is born in Winfield Kansas. He is best known for the role of amateur filmmaker Ed Chigliak in the TV series Northern Exposure. He has also been seen in The X-Files and CSI: Crime Scene Investigation. He has appeared in the Cry-Baby, Sunset Strip, Amistad, and Forty Shades of Blue.

1968–A promotional video of The Beatles performing Hey Jude is broadcast on television in the U.K., on the BBC1 program Top of the Pops.

1970–Palestinian terrorists blow up three hijacked airliners in Jordan, continuing to hold the passengers hostage in various undisclosed locations in Amman.

1970–The James Taylor hit, Fire and Rain, is released.

1970–In New Orleans, Louisiana, thieves steal $40,000 worth of Pink Floyd's touring equipment.

1971–Palisades (Amusement) Park closes in Cliffside Park and Fort Lee, New Jersey, to make room for high rise condominiums. One of the most famous amusement parks in the world, it was the subject of a hit song by Freddie Cannon, Palisades Park. Originally, it had been a simple picnic ground, with tables and benches, refreshment concessions, and a breathtaking view of Manhattan. By 1908, it had added a carousel, various rides, a wild west show, and numerous other attractions. In 1910, the property was purchased by Nicholas and Joseph Schenck, who constructed the world's largest outdoor salt water pool in the Park, building Palisades into an attraction which came to rival Coney Island. By the mid-1960s, Palisades had become one of the most popular and most visited amusement parks in the country. The crowds that headed to the park each summer was more than the small New Jersey communities could handle. Many lucrative offers came in from land developers and the elderly owner eventually sold out to the Winston-Centex Corporation for over $12 million.

1972–Actor, William Boyd, dies of complications from Parkinson's disease and heart failure in Laguna Beach, California, at age 77. He is best known for starring in the TV series Hopalong Cassidy. His character of Hopalong Cassidy was one the most highly merchandised for the Baby Boomer generation: there were Hopalong Cassidy watches, trash cans, cups, dishes, Topps trading cards, metal lunchboxes, comic books, and cowboy outfits.

1974–Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia, “Messiah” of the Rastafari movement, is deposed following a military coup by the Derg, ending a reign of 58 years.

1974–Juventude Africana Amílcar Cabral is founded in Guinea-Bissau.

1977–South African anti-apartheid activist, Steve Biko, dies in police custody in Pretoria, Republic of South Africa, at age 30. According to an autopsy, an "extensive brain injury" had caused "centralisation of the blood circulation to such an extent that there had been intravasal blood coagulation, acute kidney failure, and uremia." News of Biko's death spread quickly across the world, and became symbolic of the abuses of the apartheid system. His death attracted more global attention than he had ever attained during his lifetime.

1977–James (Louis) McCartney, son of Paul and Linda McCartney, is born in London, England. He spent the first two and a half years of his life on the road while his parents toured with their band Wings. After the band broke up in 1980, the McCartney family settled in Rye, East Sussex, England. James began playing music when his father gave him a Fender Stratocaster at age nine. The guitar had previously been owned by Carl Perkins.

1979–Indonesia is hit with a 7.9 earthquake.

1980–An in-depth report on the death of Elvis Presley airs on ABC-TV’s news show 20/20. It raises so many unanswered questions that the official case concerning Elvis’ death will be reopened.

1983–A Wells Fargo depot in West Hartford, Connecticut, is robbed of approximately $7 million by Los Macheteros.

1988–Hurricane Gilbert devastates Jamaica.

1990–The two German states and the Four Powers sign the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany in Moscow, paving the way for German reunification.

1992–NASA launches Space Shuttle Endeavour on STS-47, which marks the 50th shuttle mission. On board are Mae Carol Jemison, the first African-American woman in space; Mamoru Mohri, the first Japanese citizen to fly in a U.S. spaceship; and Mark Lee and Jan Davis, the first married couple in space.

1992–Abimael Guzmán, leader of the Shining Path, is captured by Peruvian special forces, leading to the fall of the rest of Shining Path's leadership.

1992–Actor, Anthony Perkins, dies of AIDS-related pneumonia in Los Angeles, California, at age 60. He is best known for the role of Norman Bates in Psycho. He also appeared in the films Friendly Persuasion, Fear Strikes Out, The Tin Star, Desire Under the Elms, The Matchmaker, On the Beach, Tall Story, Goodbye Again, The Trial, Evening Primrose, Pretty Poison, Catch-22, How Awful About Allan, Play It As It Lays, Lovin’ Molly, Murder on the Orient Express, Mahogany, and Winter Kills.

1993–Actor, Raymond Burr, dies of cancer in Healdsburg, California, at age 76. He starred in two TV series: Perry Mason and Ironsides. He appeared in the films I Love Trouble, Ruthless, Pitfall, Walk a Crooked Mile, Black Magic, Abandoned, Love Happy, A Place in the Sun, Meet Danny Wilson, The Blue Gardenia, Gorilla at Large, Rear Window, and Godzilla, King of the Monsters!

1994–Frank Eugene Corder dies as he crashes a single-engine Cessna 150 into the White House's south lawn, striking the West wing.

1994–Actor, Tom Ewell, dies after a long series of illnesses at the Motion Picture Country House and Hospital in Woodland Hills, California, at age 85. He appeared in the films Adam’s Rib, A Life of Her Own, Finders Keepers, Back at the Front, The Seven Year Itch, The Lieutenant Wore Skirts, The Great American Pastime, The Girl Can’t Help It, Tender is the Night, State Fair, Suppose They Gave a War and Nobody Came?, They Only Kill Their Masters, and Easy Money.

2000–Actor, Gary Olsen, dies in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, at age 42. He is best known for the role of Ben in the BBC-TV sitcom 2point4 Children. He appeared in the films Birth of The Beatles, Breaking Glass, Outlant, Pink Floyd: The Wsall, Alice Through the Looking Glass, and The Cook, the Thief, His Wife & Her Lover.

2000–Saxophonist, Stanley Turrentine, dies of a stroke in New York, New York, at age 66. He worked with Kenny Burrell, Donald Byrd, Georgie Fame, Astrud Gilberto, Freddie Hubbard, and Diana Krall.

2001–Ansett Australia, Australia's first commercial interstate airline, collapses due to increased strain on the international airline industry, leaving 10,000 people unemployed.

2003–The United Nations lifts sanctions against Libya after they agree to accept responsibility and recompense the families of victims in the 1988 bombing of Pan Am Flight 103.

2003–During the Iraq War, U.S. forces mistakenly shoot and kill eight Iraqi police officers in Fallujah.

2003–Singer, Johnny Cash, dies of complications from diabetes in Nashville, Tennessee, at age 71. Some of his biggest hits are Get Rhythm, I Walk the Line, Ballad of a Teenage Queen, Guess Things Happen That Way, Don't Take Your Guns to Town, Ring of Fire, Understand Your Man, Folsom Prison Blues, Daddy Sang Bass, and A Boy Named Sue.

2007–Former Philippine President Joseph Estrada is convicted of the crime of plunder.

2008–A train collision in Los Angeles, California, between a Metrolink commuter train and a Union Pacific freight train kills 25 people.

2011–The 9/11 Memorial Museum in New York City opens to the public.

2013–Engineer, Ray Dolby, dies of leukemia in San Francisco, California, at age 80. He founded Dolby Laboratories. The analog Dolby noise-reduction system works by increasing the volume of low-level high-frequency sounds during recording and correspondingly reducing them during playback. This reduction in high-frequency volume reduces the audible level of tape hiss.

2014–A fan invades the Hollywood Hills home of actor, Keanu Reeves. He was sleeping until he heard noises coming from the library. When he made his way to the room, he found the woman sitting quietly a chair. The woman, who is in her 40s, was behaving erratically and is taken to a medical facility to be evaluated. She is not arrested.

2014–Joe Sample, a founding member of the Jazz Crusaders, dies of mesothelioma in Houston, Texas, at age 75. He worked with Miles Davis, George Benson, Jimmy Witherspoon, B.B. King, Eric Clapton, Steely Dan, and The Supremes.

2015–A series of explosions involving propane, trigger nearby illegally stored mining detonators in Petlawad, Indian, killing at least 105 people and injuring over 150 others.

2016–The Oxford English Dictionary adds a new slate of words, including biatch, clickbait, fuhgeddaboudit, 'Merica, non-apology, shoppertainment, squee, uh-oh, upspeak, vom, witching hour, splendiferous, human bean, scrumdiddlyumptious, YOLO, moobs, and Yoda.

2016–In a protest in Barcelona, Spain, an estimated 800,000 people demand secession from the Madrid-based Spanish government.

2016–Baracktrema obamai, a new species of parasite, is named after Barack Obama.

2016–A 5.8 earthquake occurs in South Korea, south of Gyeongju, injuring at least two people and causing nationwide panic.

2017–Apple Inc. announces three new iPhone models: the iPhone 8, iPhone 8 Plus, and the iPhone X. The Apple Watch Series 3 and a new Apple TV are also announced.

2017–The U.S. Supreme Court rules that the Trump administration can block international refugees from entering the United States.

2017–The U.S. Department of Justice requests that the Moscow-based Russian media channel, RT America, register as a foreign lobbying firm in the United States.

2017–California Governor, Jerry Brown, signs a bill that will protect all California residents from unnecessary detention and questioning regardless of their immigration status. This is similar to ordinances in sanctuary cities across the nation.

PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Emperor Andronikos I Komnenos; Burmese King, Hsinbyushin; H.L. Mencken; Frank Stallone, Sr. with his sons Frank Stallone and Sylvester Stallone; Elvis Presley at age 13; the cast of Bonanza; The Monkees; a poster for Palisades (Amusement) Park in Fort Lee, New Jersey; James McCartney; Anthony Perkins; Johnny Cash; and Joe Sample.

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