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1969–The Illinois University newspaper, The Northern Star, runs an article with the headline "Clues Hint at Beatle Death," which becomes the first of the “Paul Is Dead” rumors, one of the hypes of the decade. Within weeks, Paul McCartney will inform journalists from his Scotland farm that reports of his demise are premature.

BC 63–Roman Emperor, Augustus Caesar, is born.

867–Byzantine Emperor, Michael III, is murdered in Constantinople, at age 27. He was the third and traditionally last member of the Amorian Dynasty, also known as the Phrygian Dynasty.

1122–Pope Callixtus II and Holy Roman Emperor Henry V agree at the Concordat of Worms to put an end to the Investiture Controversy.

1338–The Battle of Arnemuiden was the first naval battle of the Hundred Years' War and the first naval battle using artillery, as the English ship Christopher had three cannon and one hand gun.

1409–The Battle of Kherlen is the second significant victory over Ming dynasty China by the Mongols since 1368.

1459–The Battle of Blore Heath (the first major battle of the English Wars of the Roses) takes place.

1568–Spanish naval forces rout an English fleet, under the command of John Hawkins, at the Battle of San Juan de Ulúa near Veracruz.

1641–The Merchant Royal, carrying a treasure of over 100,000 pounds of gold (worth over £1 billion today), is lost at sea off Land's End.

1642–The girst commencement exercises take place at Harvard College.

1779–On board the USS Bonhomme Richard, John Paul Jones wins the Battle of Flamborough Head during the American Revolution.

1780–British Major John André is arrested as a spy by American soldiers, exposing Benedict Arnold's change of sides during the American Revolutionary War.

1803–The Battle of Assaye, between the British East India Company and the Maratha Empire in India, is fought.

1806–Lewis and Clark return to St. Louis, Missouri, after exploring the Pacific Northwest of the United States.

1821–Tripolitsa, Greece, is captured by Greek rebels during the Greek War of Independence.

1845–The Knickerbockers Baseball Club, the first baseball team to play under modern rules, is founded in New York.

1846–The planet Neptune is first observed. Although the planet is about 30 times further away from the Sun than planet Earth, German astronomer, Johann Gottfried Galle, spots it.

1868–Grito de Lares ("Lares Revolt") occurs in Puerto Rico against Spanish rule.

1889–Nintendo Koppai (later Nintendo Company, Limited) is founded by Fusajiro Yamauchi to produce and market the playing card game, Hanafuda.

1889–Journalist and political commentator, Walter Lippmann, is born in New York, New York. He is the founder of The New Republic magazine. He was the recipient of two Pulitzer Prizes, one for his syndicated newspaper column, and one for his 1961 interview with Nikita Khruschev. He introduced the concept of the Cold War to the world. Lippman saw the role of a journalist as disseminating facts and actions of policymakers to the public in order to hold those policymakers accountable to citizens. He has been labeled both the most influential journalist of the 20th century and the "Father of Modern Journalism." Lippmann's best known book, Public Opinion, is considered by many to be the founding book of modern journalism.

1890–John Lomax, folk song collector and ethnomusicologist, is born in Mississippi.

1905–Norway and Sweden sign the "Karlstad treaty," peacefully dissolving the Union between the two countries.

1908–The University of Alberta is founded in Canada.

1909–The Phantom of the Opera (original title: Le Fantôme de l'Opéra), a novel by French writer, Gaston Leroux, is first published as a serialization in Le Gaulois.

1911–Pilot Earle Ovington makes the first official airmail delivery in America under the authority of the U.S. Post Office.

1913–Roland Garros, of France, becomes the first to fly in an airplane across the Mediterranean (from St. Raphael, France, to Bizerte, Tunisia).

1920–Actor, Mickey Rooney, is born Joseph Yule, Jr. in Brooklyn, New York. He is best known for the series of “Andy Hardy” movies and his work with Judy Garland. He appeared in the films Ah, Wilderness!, Little Lord Fauntleroy, Captains Courageous, Love Finds Andy Hardy, Boys Town, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Babes in Arms, Young Tom Edison, Strike Up the Band, The Human Comedy, National Velvet, Words and Music, The Strip, Baby Face Nelson, Breakfast at Tiffany’s, Requiem for a Heavyweight, It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World, How to Stuff a Wild Bikini, The Comic, The Black Stallion, and Bill. He was married to actress, Ava Gardner.

1926–Jazz musician, John Coltrane, is born in Hamlet, North Carolina. He was a composer and master of the soprano and tenor saxophones, bass clarinet, and flute. He was the most influential figure in avant garde jazz.

1930–The flashbulb is patented by Johannes Ostermeier of Athegnenber, Germany. Much later, bulbs were replaced by flash cubes, and eventually, an automatic flash was built into the camera.

1930–R&B singer, Ray Charles, is born Ray Charles Robinson in Albany, Georgia. He was an American singer, songwriter, musician, and composer, who earned the nickname "The Genius": he was blind from the age of seven. He pioneered the genre of soul music during the 1950s, by combining rhythm and blues, gospel, and blues styles into the music he recorded for Atlantic Records, one of his most prolific periods. His hits include Mess Around, I Got a Woman, Hallelujah I Love Her So, Drown in My Own Tears, Swanee River Rock, What'd I Say, Come Rain or Come Shine, Georgia on My Mind, Ruby, Hit the Road Jack, One Mint Julip, and Unchain My Heart. His life story is told in the movie Ray.

1932–The Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd is renamed the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

1936–The first ascent of Siniolchu takes place by a German team.

1938–A time capsule, to be opened in 6939, is buried at the World’s Fair in New York City.

1938–Ben E. King, of The Drifters, is born in Henderson, North Carolina. He had the big hit Stand By Me.

1939–Sigmund Freud, the man who created psychoanalysis, dies at age 83.

1942–During World War II, the Matanikau action on Guadalcanal begins as U.S. Marines attack Japanese units along the Matanikau River.

1943–The Nazi puppet state known as the Italian Social Republic is founded.

1945–Child actor and teen singer, Paul Petersen, is born in Glendale, California.

1947–Neal Smith, drummer with Alice Cooper’s band, is born in Akron, Ohio.

1948–Dan Toler, of The Allman Brothers Band and Gregg Allman Band, is born in Connersville, Indiana.

1949–Rocker, Bruce Springsteen, is born in Asbury, New Jersey.

1952–Country singer, Hank Williams, attends his last recording session.

1956–Child actor, Micky Dolenz, begins his TV career on NBC’s Circus Boy series. He would later become a member of The Monkees.

1962–The Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts opens in New York City.

1969–The Illinois University newspaper, The Northern Star, runs an article with the headline "Clues Hint at Beatle Death," which becomes the first of the “Paul Is Dead” rumors, one of the hypes of the decade. Within weeks, Paul McCartney will inform journalists from his Scotland farm that reports of his demise are premature.

1969–Actor and theatre director, Crispin Bonham-Carter, is born. He is best known for the role of Charles Bingley in Pride and Prejudice. He has appeared in the films Howard's End, Scarlet and Black, Wuthering Heights, Bridget Jones's Diary, and Rosemary & Thyme.

1972–Mott the Hoople release their single All the Young Dudes.

1973–Juan Perón returns to power in Argentina.

1974–Robbie McIntosh, drummer for The Average White Band, dies of an accidental heroin overdose in Los Angeles, California, at age 24. At a late-night party, McIntosh and fellow band member, Alan Gorrie, took what they thought was cocaine, but it was, in fact, heroin. Gorrie was saved by the intervention of fellow party-goer, Cher, who kept him conscious long enough to recover. The party host, 30-year-old millionaire, Kenneth Moss, was subsequently indicted for murder by a Grand Jury.

1975–John Lennon's deportation order is temporarily suspended on “humanitarian” grounds due to Yoko Ono’s advanced pregnancy.

1980–Bob Marley plays what will be his last concert in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

1981–Actor, Chief Dan George, dies in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, at age 82. He didn’t begin acting until he was 60 years old. He appeared in the films Smith!, Little Big Man, Cancel My Reservation, Alien Thunder, The Bears and I, Harry and Tonto, Cold Journey, The Outlaw Josey Wales, Shadow of the Hawk, Pump It Up, Americathon, Spirit of the Wind, and Nothing Personal.

1983–Saint Kitts and Nevis joins the United Nations.

1983–Gulf Air Flight 771 is destroyed by a bomb, killing all 117 people on board.

1986–Jim Deshaies, of the Houston Astros, sets a Major League record by striking out the first eight batters he faces in a game against the Los Angeles Dodgers.

1987–Choreographer, Bob Fosse, dies of a heart attack in Washington, D.C., at age 60. Among his most popular numbers are Steam Heat (The Pajama Game) and Big Spender (Sweet Charity). Notable distinctions of Fosse's style included the use of turned-in knees, the famous "Fosse Amoeba," sideways shuffling, rolled shoulders, and jazz hands. With Fred Astaire as an influence, he used props such as bowler hats, canes, and chairs.

1992–A large Provisional Irish Republican Army bomb destroys forensic laboratories in Belfast, Ireland.

1994–Fiction writer, Robert Bloch, dies of cancer in Los Angeles, California, at age 77. He focused on crime, horror, fantasy, and science fiction. Bloch wrote hundreds of short stories and over 30 novels. He is best known for the book Psycho, which became a hit movie directed by Alfred Hitchcock.

1999–NASA announces that it has lost contact with the Mars Climate Orbiter.

2002–The first public version of the web browser Mozilla Firefox ("Phoenix 0.1") is released.

2004–Over 3,000 people die in Haiti after Hurricane Jeanne produces massive flooding and mudslides.

2008–Matti Juhani Saari kills 10 people before committing suicide at the Seinäjoki University of Applied Sciences in Western Finland.

2010–Convict, Teresa Lewis, becomes the first female inmate to die by lethal injection in the state of Virginia.

2016–Marriott International and Starwood Hotels and Resorts merge into one company, with Marriott International purchasing Starwood for $13 billion, making Marriott the largest hotel company in the world.

2016–Two months after the Republican National Convention, Senator Ted Cruz finally announces his endorsement for Donald Trump for president.

2016–South Korean Defense Minister, Han Min-loo, tells his country’s National Assembly that a plan exists that would assemble and send a special-forces team to North Korea if a nuclear attack from the enemy appears imminent. South Korea needs to maintain a minimum of 500,000 active duty troops in order to thwart a potential attack at a moment’s notice. The plan is called Korea Massive Punishment and Retaliation (KMPR). It's a three-part system that also includes anti-missile and “pre-emptive strike” systems. Min-loo also says his nation has "a plan" to eliminate North Korea’s top leaders, including authoritarian leader, Kim Jong Un.

2016–A shooter at a mall in Burlington, Washington, kills at least three people and injures two others.

PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Roman Emperor, Augustus Caesar; Lewis & Clark; Walter Lippmann; Mickey Rooney; Ray Charles; Bruce Springsteen; All the Young Dudes by Mott the Hoople; Robert Bloch; and Donald Trump with Ted Cruz.

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