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1969–Chef, restaurateur, author, and “Iron Chef,” Michael D. Symon, is born in Cleveland, Ohio. He is the chef and owner of several Cleveland area restaurants, including Lola, Lolita, and The B Spot, as well as Roast, in Detroit, Michigan. Symon appears regularly on Food Network and Cooking Channel shows, including Iron Chef America, Food Feuds, The Best Thing I Ever Ate, and Cook Like an Iron Chef.

86–Roman Emperor, Antoninus Pius, is born Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus near Lanuvium, Italy. He He was one of the Five Good Emperors in the Nerva-Antonine dynasty and the Aurelii.

335–Flavius Dalmatius is raised to the rank of Caesar by his uncle, Emperor Constantine I.

634–In the Siege of Damascus, the Rashidun Arabs, under Khalid ibn al-Walid, capture Damascus from the Byzantine Empire.

656–Pope Martin I dies in Cherson, Byzantine Empire, at age 65.

866–Byzantine Emperor, Leo VI the Wise, is born in Constantinople.

931–Emperor Muzong of Liao is born Yelü Jing in China. Emperor Muzong's reign was one of the darkest in the history of the Liao dynasty, and his government was left in shambles.

1123–Emperor Taizu of Jin dies in China, at age 56.

1339–Emperor Go-Daigo of Japan dies at age 50.

1356–An English army, under the command of Edward, the Black Prince, defeats a French army and captures King John II of France.

1551–Henry III of France is born at the Château de Fontainebleau in France.

1676–Jamestown is burned to the ground by the forces of Nathaniel Bacon during Bacon's Rebellion.

1692–Giles Corey is pressed to death after refusing to plead guilty in the Salem witch trials.

1777–During the American Revolutionary War, British forces win a tactically expensive victory over the Continental Army in the First Battle of Saratoga.

1778–The Continental Congress passes the first United States federal budget.

1796–George Washington gives his farewell address as President of the United States. It is printed across America as an open letter to the public.

1799–There is a French-Dutch victory against the Russians and British in the Battle of Bergen during the French Revolutionary Wars.

1846–Two French shepherd children, Mélanie Calvat and Maximin Giraud, experience a Marian apparition on a mountaintop near La Salette, France, now known as Our Lady of La Salette.

1851–William (Hesketh) Lever is born in Bolton, Lancashire, England. He was the British manufacturer who founded Lever Brothers soap company with his brother, James. Theirs was one of the first soaps produced from vegetable oil instead of tallow. He began manufacturing Sunlight Soap and built a business empire with many well-known brands, such as Lux and Lifebuoy.

1863–The first day of the Battle of Chickamauga, in northwestern Georgia, is the bloodiest two-day battle of the American Civil War, and the only significant Confederate victory in the war's Western Theater.

1864–During the American Civil War, Union troops, under General Philip Sheridan, defeat a Confederate force commanded by General Jubal Early. With over 50,000 troops engaged it is the largest battle fought in the Shenandoah Valley and is not only militarily decisive in that region of Virginia, but also plays a role in securing Abraham Lincoln's election later in the year.

1867–Illustrator, Arthur Rackham, is born in London, England. His first illustrations for children's books came in 1896, with S.J. Adair Fitzgerald's The Zankiwank and the Bletherwich. Many of his drawings tend toward the fantastic, and occasionally grotesque, and some have a slightly erotic, or even sinister, quality. In 1900, he had great success with a volume of Fairy Tales of the Brothers Grimm. His other famous successes were Rip Van Winkle, Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens, and Alice's Adventures in Wonderland.

1868–La Gloriosa (The Glorious Revolution) begins in Spain, resulting in the deposition of Queen Isabella II. Leaders of the revolution eventually recruited an Italian prince, Amadeo of Savoy, as king. His reign lasted two years, and he was replaced by the first Spanish Republic. That also lasted two years, until leaders proclaimed Isabella's son, as King Alfonso XII in the Bourbon Restoration of 1875.

1869–Comic actor, Ben Turpin, is born Bernard Turpin in New Orleans, Louisiana. He is best known for his work in the silent film era. He worked in vaudeville, burlesque, and circuses. Turpin had a distinctive appearance, with a small wiry frame, a brush mustache, and crossed eyes. Turpin's famous eyes, he said, only crossed as a young adult after he suffered an accident.

1870–Having invaded the Papal States a week earlier, the Italian Army lays siege to Rome, entering the city the next day, after which the Pope describes himself as a Prisoner in the Vatican.

1881–President James A. Garfield dies of wounds suffered in a July 2nd shooting. Vice President Chester A. Arthur becomes President upon Garfield's death.

1893–In New Zealand, the Electoral Act of 1893 is consented to by the governor, giving all women in New Zealand the right to vote.

1900–Actor, Ricardo Cortez, is born Jacob Krantz in New York, New York. He appeared in the films Montana Moon, The Maltese Falcon, The Man with Two Faces, Fricso Kid, and The Last Hurrah.

1902–Marie Henriette of Austria dies at Hôtel du Midi in Spa, Belgium, at age 66.

1911–Author, William (Gerald) Golding, is born in Newquay, Cornwall, England. He is best known for his novel Lord of the Flies. Golding studied science and English at Oxford University. Following a short stint as a schoolmaster, he joined the Royal Navy, and in World War II he was involved in the sinking of the German battleship DKN Bismarck, and served as a lieutenant commanding a rocket-firing ship. His experiences in the war influenced his dark views of humanity.

1913–Actress, Frances (Elena) Farmer, is born in Seattle, Washington. She is known for sensationalized accounts of her life, especially her involuntary commitment to a mental hospital. She appeared in the films Too Many Parents, Border Flight, Rhythm on the Range, The Toast of New York, Ebb Tide, Ride a Crooked Mile, and The Party Crashers. She was married to actor, Leif Erickson.

1916–During the East African Campaign of World War I, colonial armed forces of the Belgian Congo (Force Publique), under the command of General Charles Tombeur, capture the town of Tabora after heavy fighting.

1918–Native American artist, Pablita Velarde, is born Tse Tsan at Santa Clara Pueblo, near Espanola, New Mexico. Her early paintings were exclusively watercolors, but later in life she learned how to prepare paints from natural pigments (a process similar to, but not the same as, fresco secco). She used these paints to produce what she called "earth paintings." She obtained the pigments from minerals and rocks, which she ground on a metate and mano until the result was a powdery substance from which she made her paints.

1927–Actor, William (Edward) Hickey, is born in Brooklyn, New York. He appeared in the films A Hatful of Rain, The Boston Strangler, The Producers, Little Big Man, Prizzi’s Honor, One Crazy Summer, Bright Lights, Big City, Sea of Love, Forget Paris, and Major Payne.

1928–Mickey Mouse makes his big screen debut in Steamboat Willie at Colony Theater in New York City.

1928–Actor, Adam West, is born William West Anderson in Walla Walla, Washington. He was best known for the title role on the popular 1960s comic-book style series Batman. He was cast in dozens of other TV shows throughout his career. He appeared in the films Voodoo Island, The Young Philadelphians, The FBI Story, Tammy and the Doctor, Soldier in the Rain, Robinson Crusoe on Mars, Doin' Time on Planet Earth, and Monster Island.

1931–Singer, Brook Benton, is born Benjamin Franklin Peay in Lugoff, South Carolina. His hits include It's Just a Matter of Time, Endlessly, This Time of the Year, and Rainy Night in Georgia.

1933–Actor, David McCallum, is born David Keith McCallum, Jr. in Glasgow, Lanarkshire, Scotland. He is best known for the role of Ilyla Kuryakin on the TV spy series The Man From U.N.C.L.E. He appeared in the films Ill Met By Moonlight, These Dangerous Years, A Night to Remember, Violent Playground, The Long and the Short and the Tall, Jungle Street, Freud: The Secret Passion, Billy Budd, The Great Escape, The Greatest Story Ever Told, Around the World Under the Sea, The Watcher in the Woods, and Hear My Song. He was married to actress, Jill Ireland.

1934–Businessman, Brian (Samuel) Epstein, is born in Liverpool, England. Epstein was put in charge of the record department of his family's newly opened NEMS music store on Great Charlotte Street. He worked "day and night" at the store to make it a success, and it became one of the biggest musical retail outlets in Northern England. The Epsteins opened a second store at 12-14 Whitechapel, and Brian was put in charge of the entire operation. Epstein first discovered The Beatles in November 1961, during a lunchtime performance at The Cavern Club. He was instantly impressed and saw great potential in the group. He would become the manager of The Beatles shortly before their rise to worldwide fame. In 1997, Paul McCartney said, "If anyone was the Fifth Beatle, it was Brian."

1936–Gene Dinwiddie, sax player for the Paul Butterfield Blues Band, is born in Louisville, Kentucky.

1940–Witold Pilecki is voluntarily captured and sent to Auschwitz to smuggle out information and start a resistance.

1940–Bill Medley, of The Righteous Brothers, is born William Thomas Medley in Santa Ana, California. He is noted for his bass-baritone voice. The duo’s hits include Little Latin Lupe Lu, You've Lost That Lovin' Feelin', Just Once in My Life. Unchained Melody, Ebb Tide, (You're My) Soul and Inspiration, and Rock and Roll Heaven.

1941–Cass Elliot, of The Mamas and The Papas, is born Ellen Naomi Cohen in Baltimore, Maryland. Her hits as a solo artist include Dream a Little Dream of Me, California Earthquake, Make Your Own Kind of Music, and New World Coming.

1944–Armistice is signed between Finland and the Soviet Union, marking the end of the Continuation War.

1944–The Battle of Hürtgen Forest between the United States and Nazi Germany begins.

1946–The Council of Europe is founded, following a speech by Winston Churchill at the University of Zurich in Switzerland.

1946–John Coghlan, drummer for Status Quo, is born in Dulwich, England.

1949–Model, Twiggy, is born Lesley Hornsby, in Neasden, London, England. She was a British cultural icon and a prominent teenage model in Swinging London in the 1960s. Twiggy was initially known for her thin build and androgynous look, consisting of big eyes, long eyelashes, and short hair. She appeared in the films The Boy Friend, The Blues Brothers, Club Paradise, Madame Sousatska, and Edge of Seventeen.

1951–Musician, songwriter, and producer, Daniel Lanois, is born in Hull, Quebec, Ontario, Canada. He has released 16 albums since his first LP, Acadie, in 1989, including soundtracks for Lost in Mississippi and Sling Blade. He produced albums for U2 (The Joshua Tree), Bob Dylan (Time Out of Mind), Robbie Robertson (Robbie Robertson), and Peter Gabriel (So).

1952–The United States bars Charlie Chaplin from re-entering the country after a trip to England.

1957–The first U.S. underground nuclear test is conducted near Las Vegas, Nevada. Operation Plumbbob was a series of nuclear tests conducted between May 28 and October 7, 1957, at the Nevada Test Site, following Project 57, and preceding Project 58/58A. It was the biggest, longest, and most controversial test series in the continental United States. The operation consisted of 29 explosions, of which only two did not produce any nuclear yield. Twenty-one laboratories and government agencies were involved. While most Operation Plumbbob tests contributed to the development of warheads for intercontinental and intermediate range missiles, they also tested air defense and anti-submarine warheads with smaller yields. They included 43 military effects tests on civil and military structures, radiation and bio-medical studies, and aircraft structural tests. Operation Plumbbob had the tallest tower tests to date in the U.S. nuclear testing program, as well as high-altitude balloon tests. One nuclear test involved the largest troop maneuver ever associated with U.S. nuclear testing.

1958–Elvis Presley departs from a Brooklyn, New York, naval base to sail to Germany to join his U.S. Army unit.

1959–Nikita Khruschev is not allowed to visit Disneyland for security reasons.

1960–Cuban leader, Fidel Castro, is in New York to visit the United Nations.

1960–Chef, restaurateur, writer, and TV personality, Mario (Francesco) Batali, is born in Seattle, Washington. He is an expert on the history and culture of regional Italian cuisine. Batali is the owner of restaurants in New York City, Los Angeles, Las Vegas, Hong Kong, Singapore, and Westport, Connecticut. Following the opening of his first restaurant in New York City, the Food Network created the show, Molto Mario, which ran for eight seasons. In 2010, Batali's Del Posto restaurant received a four-star review from The New York Times.

1968–Born To Be Wild by Steppenwolf is certified Gold.

1968–Country singer, Red Foley, dies in his sleep of respiratory failure in Fort Wayne, Indiana, at age 58. His last words to singer, Hank Williams, Jr., were, "I'm awful tired now, Hank. I've got to go to bed." For more than two decades, Foley was one of the biggest stars of Country Music, selling more than 25 million records. His 1951 hit, Peace in the Valley, was among the first million-selling gospel records. His other hits include Candy Kisses, Chattanoogie Shoe Shine Boy, Just a Closer Walk with Thee, and Don't Let the Stars Get in Your Eyes.

1969–ATV obtains 50% of the shares of Northern Songs Ltd.

1969–Chef, restaurateur, author, and “Iron Chef,” Michael D. Symon, is born in Cleveland, Ohio. He is the chef and owner of several Cleveland area restaurants, including Lola, Lolita, and The B Spot, as well as Roast, in Detroit, Michigan. Symon appears regularly on Food Network and Cooking Channel shows, including Iron Chef America, Food Feuds, The Best Thing I Ever Ate, and Cook Like an Iron Chef.

1970–The first Glastonbury Festival is held at Michael Eavis's farm in Glastonbury, England.

1970–Kostas Georgakis, a Greek student of geology, sets himself ablaze in Matteotti Square in Genoa, Italy, as a protest against the dictatorial regime of Georgios Papadopoulos.

1970–The Mary Tyler Moore Show premieres on CBS-TV.

1971–Montagnard troops of South Vietnam revolt against the rule of Nguyen Khanh, killing 70 ethnic Vietnamese soldiers.

1973–King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden has his investiture.

1973–Country-rocker, Gram Parsons, dies of a drug overdose in a hotel room in Joshua Tree, California, at age 26. His body is later stolen by his manager and a former roadie for The Byrds, and semi-cremated at Joshua Tree, per Parsons wishes. He is best known for his work with The Byrds and The Flying Burrito Brothers.

1976–Turkish Airlines Flight 452 hits the Taurus Mountains, outskirt of Karatepe, Osmaniye, Turkey, killing all 154 passengers and crew members.

1976–Two Imperial Iranian Air Force F-4 Phantom II jets fly out to investigate an unidentified flying object, when both independently lose instrumentation and communications as they approach, only to have them restored upon withdrawal.

1976–A full-page ad placed in The New York Times by promoter, Sid Bernstein, asks The Beatles to reunite. Bernstein had organized The Beatles concerts at Shea Stadium in the mid-1960s. His intentions are honorable: he asks the band to do it as a “symbol of hope.”

1978–The Solomon Islands join the United Nations.

1979–Another Beatles reunion scare, as The New York Post announces, “The Beatles are back!” The premature announcement is based on rumors surrounding a benefit concert for Cambodian boat people.

1981–As their first appearance in years, Paul Simon and Art Garfunkel reunite for a free concert to benefit New York City parks. The concert attracts a crowd of 500,000 people in Central Park and is broadcast to millions of viewers on TV.

1982–Scott Fahlman posts the first documented emoticons :-) and :-( on the Carnegie Mellon University bulletin board system: one is a smile and the other is a frown.

1983–Saint Kitts and Nevis gains its independence.

1985–Tipper Gore and other political wives create the Parents Music Resource Center, as Frank Zappa and other musicians testify at U.S. Congressional hearings on obscenity, labeling, and rating of rock music.

1985–A strong earthquake kills thousands and destroys about 400 buildings in Mexico City, Mexico.

1989–A terrorist bomb explodes UTA Flight 772 in mid-air above the Tùnùrù Desert, Niger, killing 171 people.

1991–Ötzi the Iceman is discovered by German tourists. It is a nickname given to the well-preserved natural mummy of a man who lived around BC 3,300, more precisely between BC 3359 and 3105, with a 66% chance that he died between BC 3239 and 3105. He is also known as the Similaun Man, the Man from Hauslabjoch, the Tyrolean Iceman, Homo tyrolensis, and the Hauslabjoch mummy.

1995–The Washington Post and The New York Times publish the Unabomber's manifesto.

1996–The handwritten lyrics to John Lennon’s song Being For the Benefit of Mr. Kite is sold at a Sotheby’s auction in London, England, for £66,400 ($103,500). Written in 1967 by Lennon, the lyrics (copied from a 19th century circus poster) go for more than twice the pre-auction estimate. A pair of Lennon’s wire-rimmed glasses are also sold, for £6,325 ($9,800). Surprisingly, a 35-second home movie of The Beatles performing on Valentine’s Day in 1961, at the Cassanova Club, was purchased at auction for a mere £15,000 ($22,000), far less than the pre-auction estimate of £70,000 ($105,000). The soundless film, in color, is the earliest known film of The Beatles, showing them performing in black leather outfits: John Lennon was 20, Paul McCartney was 18, and George Harrison was 17.

1997–U.S. media mogul, Ted Turner, says he will give the United Nations a gift of $1 billion.

1997–The Guelb El-Kebir massacre takes place in Algeria, killing 53 people.

2004–Singer, Skeeter Davis, dies of breast cancer in Nashville, Tennessee, at age 72. Her biggest hit was The End of the World in 1963.

2006–The Thai military stages a coup in Bangkok. The Constitution is revoked and martial law is declared.

2010–The leaking oil well in the Deepwater Horizon oil spill is sealed.

2011–Mariano Rivera, of the New York Yankees, surpasses Trevor Hoffman to become Major League Baseball's all time saves leader with 602.

2014–Thousands of Syrian Kurds cross the border between Syria and Turkey, fearing an imminent attack on the border town of Ayn al-Arab (known as Kobani in Kurdish), as Islamic State (IS) fighters advance after recently seizing dozens of nearby villages.

2015–Writer, Jackie Collins, dies of breast cancer in Beverly Hills, California, at age 77. She is best known for the “Hollywood” series, which includes Hollywood Wives, Hollywood Husbands, Hollywood Kids, and Hollywood Divorces. Her other books include The World Is Full of Married Men, The Stud, and Rock Star.

2015–Rashid bin Mohammed Al Maktoum dies of a heart attack in Dubai, UAE, at age 33. He was the eldest son of UAE Vice President, Prime Minister and ruler of Dubai, Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum.

2016–North Carolina and Virginia declare a state of emergency over gas shortages as a result of the Colonial Pipeline Leak in Shelby County, Alabama.

2016–A Democratic Republic of the Congo protest, calling for the resignation of President Joseph Kabila, turns violent in Kinshasa, leaving at least 17 people dead, including three police officers.

2017–In his speech to the United Nations General Assembly, President Donald Trump threatened to "totally destroy North Korea" if the U.S. is forced to defend itself or its allies against Pyongyang's aggression.

2017–Apple Inc. releases the iOS 11 update for most current models of the iPhone and iPad.

2017–Two African-American men are killed in separate incidents near Baton Rouge, Louisiana, and a third home is shot at in what local and federal officials call racially-motivated crimes. A local man, Kenneth James Gleason, is arrested on suspicion of the murders. Gleason was out on bail for drug related charges, when he allegedly stole a copy of The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy (a novel by Douglas Adams) and was held on the murder charges.

2017–Hurricane Maria makes landfall on Dominica as a Category 5 hurricane with maximum sustained winds of 160 mph. Maria is the second Category 5 hurricane to make landfall at that intensity in this season.

2017–Boxer, Jake LaMotta, dies from complications of pneumonia in Aventura, Florida, at age 95. He was a former World Middleweight Champion and stand-up comedian. Nicknamed "The Raging Bull," LaMotta was a rough fighter who was not a particularly a big puncher, but he would subject his opponents to vicious beatings in the ring. He had one of the best chins in boxing history: in over 110 fights against the greatest middleweights, he was only knocked to the canvas once in his entire 14 year career. LaMotta, who lived a turbulent life in and out of the ring, was portrayed by Robert De Niro in the 1980 film Raging Bull. He appeared in the films The Hustler, The Doctor and the Playgirl, The Runaways, Confessions of a Psycho Cat, Firepower, Hangmen, and New Jack City.

PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Byzantine Emperor, Leo VI the Wise; George Washington's farewell address; Ricardo Cortez; Frances Farmer; Cass Elliot; Mario Batali; Gram Parsons; Simon & Garfunkel at their "Concert in Central Park"; John Lennon's handwritten lyrics of Being For the Benefit of Mr. Kite; and Jackie Collins.

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