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2000–A collection of 1965 writings by Janis Joplin to then-fiance, Peter DeBlanc, go up for auction on eBay. The collection, which includes 57 letters, five cards, a telegram, a college essay, and drawings, is sold by DeBlanc’s ex-wife, Mary Sullivan.

275–In Rome, (after the assassination of Aurelian), the Senate proclaims Marcus Claudius Tacitus as emperor.

762–Led by Muhammad al-Nafs al-Zakiyya, the Hasanid branch of the Alids begins the Alid Revolt against the Abbasid Caliphate.

1066–The Battle of Stamford Bridge marks the end of the Viking invasions of England.

1237–England and Scotland sign the Treaty of York, establishing the location of their common border.

1333–Prince Morikuni of Japan dies shortly after becoming a Buddhist priest. He was the ninth shogun of the Kamakura shogunate of Japan.

1396–Ottoman Emperor Bayezid I defeats a Christian army at the Battle of Nicopolis.

1493–Christopher Columbus sets sail from Cadiz, Spain, on his second voyage of discovery to the New World.

1506–Philip I of Castile dies of typhoid fever in Burgos, Castile, at age 28. He was called “the Handsome” or “the Fair,” and was the first member of the house of Habsburg to be King of Castile.

1513–Spanish explorer, Vasco Núñez de Balboa, reaches what would become known as the Pacific Ocean.

1534–Pope Clement VII dies in Rome, Papal States, at age 56. It has been said that he died from eating poisonous mushrooms, but the symptoms and length of illness do not fit this theory.

1555–The Peace of Augsburg is signed in Augsburg, Germany, by Charles V and the princes of the Schmalkaldic League.

1617–Emperor Go-Yozel of Japan dies at the Sento Imperial Palace in Japan, at age 65. His reign spanned the years from 1586 through 1611, corresponding to the transition between the Azuchi-Momoyama period and the Edo period.

1690–Publick Occurrences Both Forreign and Domestick, the first newspaper to appear in the Americas, is published for the first and only time.

1711–Emperor Qianlong of China is born Aixin-Jueluo Hongli in Beijing, China.

1744–Frederick William II of Prussia is born in Stadtschloss, Berlin, Prussia.

1775–Ethan Allen surrenders to British forces after attempting to capture Montreal during the Battle of Longue-Pointe. Benedict Arnold and his expeditionary company set off from Fort Western, bound for Quebec City.

1789–The United States Congress passes 12 amendments to the U.S. Constitution: The Congressional Apportionment Amendment (which was never ratified), the Congressional Compensation Amendment, and the 10 that are known as the Bill of Rights.

1790–Peking opera is born when the Four Great Anhui Troupes introduce Anhui opera to Beijing in honor of the Qianlong Emperor's 80th birthday.

1804–The Teton Sioux (a subdivision of the Lakota) demand one of the boats from the Lewis and Clark Expedition as a toll for allowing the expedition to move further upriver.

1826–Frederica of Baden dies of heart disease in Lausanne, Switzerland, at age 45.

1832–Architect and engineer, William LeBaron Jenney, is born in Fairhaven, Massachusetts. He is known for designing and building the first metal-framed skyscraper, and is known to many as the “father of the American skyscraper.” Jenney is best known for his design of the 10-story Home Insurance Building in Chicago, Illinois, which is certainly not a skyscraper.

1846–U.S. forces. led by Zachary Taylor, capture Monterrey, Mexico.

1867–Rancher and cattle drover, Oliver Loving, dies of gangrene causes injuries sustained in an attack by Comanches at Loving Bend on the Pecos River in Fort Sumner, New Mexico. After a temporary burial in New Mexico, Loving's partner and friend, Charles Goodnight, saw to it that his remains were sent to Weatherford, Texas, per his wishes. Loving was buried with Masonic honors in Greenwood Cemetery on March 4, 1868.

1868–The Imperial Russian steam frigate, Alexander Nevsky, is shipwrecked off Jutland while carrying Grand Duke Alexei of Russia.

1890–The U.S. Congress establishes Sequoia National Park in the southern Sierra Nevada, east of Visalia, California.

1897–The first British bus service is established.

1897–Novelist and short story writer, William (Cuthbert) Faulkner, is born New Albany, Mississippi. His novels include The Sound and the Fury, As I Lay Dying, A Fable, and The Reivers.

1906–In the presence of the King, and before a great crowd, Leonardo Torres Quevedo successfully demonstrates the invention of the “Telekino.” In the port of Bilbao, he guides a boat from the shore, in what is considered the birth of the “remote control.”

1906–Pianist and composer, Dmitri (Dmitriyevich) Shostakovich, is born in Saint Petersburg, Russia. His music is characterized by sharp contrasts, elements of the grotesque, and ambivalent tonality. He is regarded as one of the major composers of the 20th century.

1911–An explosion of badly degraded propellant charges on board the French battleship, Liberté, detonates the forward ammunition magazines and destroys the ship.

1912–The Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism is founded in New York City.

1915–During World War I, the Second Battle of Champagne begins.

1926–The International Convention to Suppress the Slave Trade and Slavery is first signed.

1926–Henry Ford announces the eight-hour, five-day work week.

1929–Jimmy Doolittle performs the first blind flight from Mitchel Field, at Mitchel Air Force Base on the Hempstead Plains of Long Island, New York, proving that full instrument flying from take off to landing is possible.

1932–Pianist and conductor, Glenn (Herbert) Gould, is born in Toronto, Canada. He was one of the most celebrated classical pianists of the 20th century. Gould was particularly renowned as an interpreter of the keyboard music of Johann Sebastian Bach.

1933–Erik Darling, of The Weavers, is born in Baltimore, Maryland. In 1962, he formed a jazz-folk trio, The Rooftop Singers, with longtime friend Bill Svanoe and jazz singer Lynn Taylor. Intended as a studio-only project for Vanguard, the group landed an unexpected #1 pop hit with a cover of Gus Cannon's 1929 song Walk Right In.

1936–Actress and dancer, Juliet (Anne) Prowse, is born in Bombay, India. She appeared in the films Gentlemen Marry Brunettes, G.I. Blues, Can-Can, The Second Time Around, The Right Approach, and Who Killed Teddy Bear? She appeared on stage in Kismet, The Boy Friend, Sweet Charity, Mame, The Pjama Game, I Do! I Do!, Funny Girl, Chicago, and Sugar Babies.

1937–In the second Sino-Japanese War, the Chinese Eighth Route Army gains a minor, but morale-boosting victory in the Battle of Pingxingguan.

1942–Swiss Police instruction dictates that, “under current practice, refugees on the grounds of race alone are not political refugees," denying entry to Jews trying to flee occupied Europe during the Holocaust.

1944–In World War II, surviving elements of the British 1st Airborne Division withdraw from Arnhem in the Netherlands, thus ending the Battle of Arnhem and Operation Market Garden.

1944–Actor, Michael (Kirk) Douglas, is born in New Brunswick, New Jersey. From 1972 to 1976, he co-starred in the TV series The Streets of San Francisco. He appeared in the films Summertree, Coma, The China Syndrome, Running, It’s My turn, The Star Chamber, Romancing the Stone, The Jewel of the Nile, A Chorus Line, Fatal Attraction, Wall Street, The War of the Roses, Basic Instinct, Falling Down, Disclosure, The American President, The Game, A Perfect Murder, and Wonder Boys. His father is actor, Kirk Douglas. He was married to actress, Catherine Zeta-Jones.

1951–Actor, Mark (Richard) Hamill, is born in Oakland, California. He is best known for the role of Luke Skywalker in the Star Wars film series. He also appeared in the films Corvette Summer, The Big Red One, The Night the Lights Went Out in Georgia, Britannia Hospital, Midnight Ride, Sleepwalkers, Time Runner, Village of the Damned, and Hamilton.

1952–Actor, Christopher (D'Olier) Reeve, is born in New York, New York. He appeared in the films Superman, Somewhere in Time, Deathtrap, Street Smart, The Remains of the Day, and Village of the Damned. On May 27, 1995, Reeve became a quadriplegic after being thrown from a horse during an equestrian competition in Culpeper, Virginia. He required a wheelchair and a portable ventilator for the rest of his life. He lobbied on behalf of people with spinal-cord injuries and for human embryonic stem cell research, founding the Christopher Reeve Foundation and co-founding the Reeve-Irvine Research Center.

1953–Piano playing entertainer, Liberace, makes his debut at Carnegie Hall in New York City before a sellout audience. His candelabra and concert grand piano were instant trademarks that lasted throughout his career.

1955–The Royal Jordanian Air Force is founded.

1956–TAT-1, the first submarine transatlantic telephone cable system, goes into operation.

1957–Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, is integrated by the use of U.S. Army troops.

1959–Solomon Bandaranaike, Prime Minister of Sri Lanka, is mortally wounded by a Buddhist monk, Talduwe Somarama, and dies the next day.

1960–Etiquette expert, Emily Post, dies in her apartment in New York, New York, at age 87. She wrote in various styles, including humorous travel books, early in her career. She published her first etiquette book, Etiquette in Society, in Business, in Politics, and at Home, when she was 50. It became a best-seller, with updated versions continuing to be popular for decades. After 1931, Post spoke on radio programs and wrote a column on good taste for the Bell Syndicate, which appeared daily in 200 newspapers after 1932.

1962–The People's Democratic Republic of Algeria is formally proclaimed. Ferhat Abbas is elected president of the provisional government.

1962–The North Yemen Civil War begins when Abdullah al-Sallal dethrones the newly crowned Imam al-Badr and declares Yemen a republic under his presidency.

1963–Lord Denning releases the U.K. government's official report on the Profumo Affair.

1964–The Mozambican War of Independence against Portugal begins.

1964–A group of U.S. businessmen offer $3.5 million to Brian Epstein to buy out his contract with The Beatles, but, of course, Epstein, declines the offer.

1964–A chart topper: Oh, Pretty Woman by Roy Orbison.

1965–A weekly half-hour cartoon television series, The Beatles, begins in America on ABC-TV. Broadcast on Saturday mornings, the series features actual Beatles recordings played as part of topical episodes featuring cartoon characterizations of The Beatles. The voices for the Beatles cartoon characters are impersonated by Paul Frees (John and George) and Lance Percival (Paul and Ringo). The series is produced by Al Brodax, who will go on to produce The Beatles’ animated feature film Yellow Submarine. The cartoon series is distributed by King Features Syndicate.

1968–Actor-singer, Will Smith, is born Willard Carroll Smith, Jr. in West Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He started out with his role on the TV series The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air. He appeared in the films Where the Day Takes You, Made in America, Six Degrees of Separarion, Bad Boys, Independence Day, Men in Black, Wild Wild West, and Ali. He is married to actress, Jada Pinkett.

1969–The charter establishing the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation is signed.

1969–ATV acquires ownership of Northern Songs. The negotiated deal had been announced the preceding May 5th. This means that John Lennon and Paul McCartney have lost control over their very substantial song catalog.

1972–In a referendum, the people of Norway reject membership in the European Community.

1974–The first ulnar collateral ligament replacement surgery is performed on baseball player, Tommy John.

1977–About 4,200 people take part in the first running of the Chicago Marathon.

1978–PSA Flight 182, a Boeing 727, collides in mid-air with a Cessna 172 and crashes in San Diego, California, killing 144 people.

1980–The Wings LP Venus and Mars is released in the U.S.

1980–John Bonham, drummer for Led Zeppelin, is found dead in his bed after a drinking binge in Clewer, Berkshire, England, at age 32. The finding was accidental death and an autopsy found no other drugs in Bonham's body. Bonham was esteemed for his speed, power, fast bass-drumming, distinctive sound, and "feel" for the groove. He is widely considered to be one of the greatest drummers in rock history.

1981–Belize joins the United Nations.

1983–Thirty-eight republican prisoners, armed with six handguns, hijack a prison meals lorry and smash their way out of the Maze prison. It is the largest prison escape in British history since World War II.

1983–Leopold III of Belgium dies in Woluwe-Saint-Lambert, Belgium, at age 81. He was Prince Leopold of Belgium and Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.

1985–Biochemist, William Cumming Rose, dies in Urbana, Illinois, at age 98. He researched amino acids and established the importance of the eight essential amino acids in human nutrition.

1987–Actress, Mary Astor, dies of pulmonary emphysema in Woodland Hills, California, at age 81. She is best known for the role of Brigid O'Shaughnessy in The Maltese Falcon. She also appeared in the films Dodsworth, The Prisoner of Zenda, Brigham Young, Meet Me in St. Louis, Little Women, A Kiss Before Dying, Return to Peyton Place, Youngblood Hawke, and Hush... Hush, Sweet Charlotte.

1992–NASA launches the Mars Observer, a $511 million probe to Mars, in the first U.S. mission to the planet in 17 years. Eleven months later, the probe would fail.

1996–The last of the Magdalene asylums is closed in Ireland.

2000–A collection of 1965 writings by Janis Joplin to then-fiance, Peter DeBlanc, go up for auction on eBay. The collection, which includes 57 letters, five cards, a telegram, a college essay, and drawings, is sold by DeBlanc’s ex-wife, Mary Sullivan.

2003–An 8.3 earthquake strikes just offshore Hokkaido, Japan.

2003–Director, producer, and screenwriter, Herb Gardner, dies from complications of lung disease in Manhattan, New York, at age 68. His films include The Goodbye People, I’m Not Rappaport, A Thousand Clowns, Who Is Harry Kellerman and Why Is He Saying Those Terrible Things About Me?, and Thieves.

2003–Writer and literary editor, George Plimpton, dies of a heart attack in New York, New York, at age 76. He is widely known for his sports writing and for helping to found The Paris Review. He is also famous for his "participatory journalism," which included competing in professional sporting events, acting in a Western film, performing a comedy act at Caesars Palace in Las Vegas, and playing with the New York Philharmonic Orchestra, and recording the experience from the point of view of an amateur.

2005–Actor, Don Adams, dies of lymphoma in Los Angeles, California, at age 92. He is best known for the role of Maxwell Smart on the comedy series Get Smart.

2008–China launches the spacecraft Shenzhou 7.

2009–U.S. President Barack Obama, British Prime Minister Gordon Brown, and French President Nicolas Sarkozy, in a joint TV appearance for a G-20 summit, accuse Iran of building a secret nuclear enrichment facility.

2012–Singer, Andy Williams, dies of bladder cancer in Branson, Missouri, at age 84. He hosted The Andy Williams Show, a TV variety show, from 1962 to 1971, and numerous TV specials. His hits include Are You Sincere?, Lonely Street, Stranger on the Shore, Can’t Get Used to Losing You, Charade, Dear Heart, and It’s the Most Wonderful Time of the Year.

2015–Los Angeles Superior Court Judge, Gerald Rosenberg, approves Caitlyn Jenner's petition to legally change her name and gender during a hearing in Santa Monica, California. The 65-year-old Olympic gold medalist, who was born William Bruce Jenner, didn't attend the brief hearing. Jenner has publicly transitioned to a woman in recent months, after revealing her intentions to journalist, Diane Sawyer, in a televised special, and debuting her new name and look on the cover of Vanity Fair magazine.

2016–Jordanian writer and cartoonist, Nahed Hattar, is assassinated in front of a courthouse in the capital Amman.

2016–Baseball player, José Fernández, dies in a boating accident in Miami Beach, Florida, at age 24. He was a Cuban American professional baseball pitcher who played in Major League Baseball (MLB) for the Miami Marlins from 2013 through 2016.

2016–Golfer, Arnold Palmer, dies in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, at age 87. He is generally regarded as one of the greatest players in professional golf history. Palmer won numerous events on both the PGA Tour and Champions Tour, dating back to 1955. Nicknamed "The King," he was one of golf's most popular stars and its most important trailblazer, because he was the first superstar of the sport's television age, which began in the 1950s.

2016–Country singer, Jean Shepard, dies of Parkinson's Disease in Nashville, Tennessee, at age 82. She is known as a honky-tonk singer-songwriter who was a pioneer for women in country music. Shepard released a total of 73 singles to the Hot Country Songs chart.

2017–New evidence proves that the ancient Egyptians constructed the Great Pyramid at Giza by transporting 170,000 tons of limestone along the River Nile in wooden boats. The 2.5-ton blocks were ferried through a system of specially designed canals before arriving at an inland port built just yards away from the base of the Great Pyramid. It has long been known that the rock was extracted eight miles away in Tura and that granite used in the monumental structure was quarried 533 miles away in Aswan. However, archaeologists have disagreed over how the material was transported to Giza, now part of modern-day Cairo, for construction of Pharaoh Khufu’s tomb in BC 2600.

2017–Former Democratic congressman from New York, Anthony Weiner, is sentenced to 21-months in prison for sexting with a 15-year-old girl. He is also fined $10,000. Weiner's sexting habit destroyed his career in Congress, his campaign for mayor, and his marriage to Huma Abedin, a former aide to Hillary Clinton.

PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Prince Morikuni of Japan; the first skyscraper, the 10-story Home Insurance Building in Chicago, Illinois; Glenn Gould; Michael Douglas; promotion for Liberace at Carnegie Hall; Will Smith; Leopold III of Belguim; letters from Janis Joplin to her fiance, Peter DeBlanc; and Andy Williams.

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