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1964–ABC-TV launches the rock-themed TV show Shindig! The program had go-go girls and the biggest rock bands of the day in a dance party environment. Regulars are Jimmie O’Neill, the Shindig Dancers, and the show’s own house band, The Shindogs. First episode guests include: Sam Cooke, The Everly Brothers, The Wellingtons, The Righteous Brothers, and Bobby Sherman.

307–Emperor Severus II is captured and imprisoned at Tres Tabernae. He is later executed (or forced to commit suicide) after Galerius unsuccessfully invades Italy.
655–Pope Martin I dies in Chersonesus (present-day Crimea region), at age 57. He is considered a Saint and martyr by the Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church.

1087–Pope Victor III dies in Monte Cassino, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire, at age 61.

1380–Charles V of France dies in Beauté-sur-Marne, France, at age 42. He was succeeded by his son, Charles VI of France, whose disastrous reign allowed the English to regain control of large parts of France.

1400–Owain Glyndwr is declared Prince of Wales by his followers.

1507–Emperor Jiajing of China is born Zhu Houcong.

1620–The Mayflower, carrying pilgrims to Plymouth, Massachusetts, to establish the first permanent English colony in the Americas, sets sail from Southampton, England.

1701–James II of England dies of a brain haemorrhage at Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye in France, at age 67. James Francis Edward Stuart, sometimes called the "Old Pretender," becomes the Jacobite claimant to the thrones of England and Scotland.

1732–In Campo Maior, Portugal, a storm hits the Armory and a violent explosion ensues, killing two thirds of its inhabitants.

1736–Physicist and engineer, Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit, dies in The Hague, Dutch Republic, at age 50. He developed the Fahrenheit scale of measuring temperature. A pioneer of exact thermometry, he is best known for inventing the mercury-in-glass thermometer (the first practical, accurate thermometer).

1779–In the American Revolutionary War, the Franco-American Siege of Savannah begins.

1782–Emperor Daoguang of China is born Aixin-Jueluo Mianning in Forbidden City, Beijing, China.

1810–With the Grito de Dolores, Father Miguel Hidalgo begins Mexico's fight for independence from Spain.

1814–Lady Annabella Milbanke accepts Lord Byron's marriage proposal, having previously rejected him.

1824–Louis XVIII of France dies after a period of ill health at Louvre Palace in Paris, France, at age 68. He had spent 23 years in exile, from 1791 to 1814, during the French Revolution and the First French Empire, and again in 1815, during the period of the Hundred Days, upon the return of Napoleon I from Elba.

1853–Henry Steinway sells his first American-made piano. He introduced the first cast iron frame, which allowed a piano to be strung with greater tension on the strings, and with the bass strings crossing above the treble strings, so they could be longer and make a grander sound.

1859–Yuan Shikai, the first President of the Republic of China, is born in Xiangcheng, Henan, Qing Dynasty.

1863–Robert College of Istanbul-Turkey, the first American educational institution outside the United States, is founded by Christopher Robert, an American philanthropist.

1877–Businessman, Jacob Schick, is born in Ottumwa, Iowa. He was an American inventor and entrepreneur who patented the first electric razor and started Schick Dry Shaver, Inc. In 1935, Schick became a Canadian citizento avoid an investigation by the Joint Congressional Committee on Tax Evasion & Avoidance after he moved most of his wealth to a series of holding companies in the Bahamas.

1880–The Cornell Daily Sun prints its first issue in Ithaca, New York.

1883–Aesthetician, literary critic, and poet, T.E. Hulme, is born in Endon, Staffordshire, England. He was a major 20th-century literary influence. After being expelled from St. John's College, Cambridge, for rowdyism in 1904, he lived mainly in London, where he translated the works of philosopher, Henri Bergson. He joined Ezra Pound, F.S. Flint, and Hilda Doolittle in instigating the Imagist movement.

1887–Music teacher, Nadia Boulanger, is born in Paris. She will become a mentor to modern composer, Aaron Copland.

1888–Engineer, W.O. Bentley, is born Walter Owen Bentley in Hampstead, England. He was a racecar driver and founder of Bentley Motors Limited.

1893–Settlers make a land run for prime land in the Cherokee Strip in Oklahoma.

1908–The General Motors Corporation is founded.

1914–Television producer, Allen (Albert) Funt, is born in New York, New York. He was a director, writer, and television personality, best known as the creator and host of TV series Candid Camera from the 1940s to 1980s.

1919–The American Legion is incorporated.

1920–A bomb in a horse wagon explodes in front of the J.P. Morgan building in New York City killing 38 people and injuring 400 others.

1922–Film director, Guy Hamilton, is born Mervyn Ian Guy Hamilton in Paris, France. His films include the James Bond features Goldfinger, Diamonds Are Forever, Live and Let Die, and The Man with the Golden Gun. He also directed The Intruder, The Party’s Over, Force 10 from Navarone, The Mirror Crack'd, and Evil Under the Sun.

1923–(Harry) Lee Kuan Yew, first Prime Minister of Singapore, is born in Singapore, Straits Settlements. He is recognized as the founding father of modern Singapore, and the only leader known to bring an entire country from third-world to first-world status in a single generation.

1924–Actress, Lauren Bacall, is born Betty Joan Perske in the Bronx, New York. Bacall began her career as a model, before becoming an actress. She appeared in the films To Have and Have Not, The Big Sleep, Key Largo, Young Man with a Horn, How to Marry a Millionaire, Written on the Wind, Sex and the Single Girl, The Fan, and The Mirror Has Two Faces. In 2009, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences awarded her an honorary Oscar "in recognition of her central place in the Golden Age of motion pictures." She was married to actors, Humphrey Bogart and Jason Robards.

1925–Bluesman, B.B. King, is born Riley B. King in Itta Bena, Mississippi. He is considered one of the most influential blues musicians of all time, earning the nickname "The King of Blues." King introduced a sophisticated style of soloing, based on fluid string bending and shimmering vibrato, that would influence virtually every electric blues guitarist that followed. Over four decades he and Lucille, his red guitar, would play as many as 330 one-night stands a year in bars and blues clubs. He best known hit is The Thrill is Gone.

1926–American pastor and author, Robert H. Schuller, is born Robert Harold Schuller in Alton, Iowa. He was principally known for the weekly Hour of Power TV program, which he founded in 1970, and hosted until 2010. He was also the founder of the Crystal Cathedral in Garden Grove, California.

1927–Actor, Peter (Michael) Falk, is born in New York, New York. He is best known for his starring role in the TV detective series Columbo. He appeared in the films Murder Inc., Pocketful of Miracles, Pressure Point, The Balcony, It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World, Robin and the 7 Hoods, The Great Race, Luv, A Hatful of Rain, Machine Gun McCain, Husbands, A Woman Under the Influence, Murder by Death, Opening Night, The Brink’s Job, Vibes, Cookie, and The Sunshine Boys.

1938–Tommy Dorsey and His Orchestra record their classic, Boogie Woogie, for Victor records.

1942–Bernie Calvert, of The Hollies, is born Bernard Bamford Calvert in Brierfield, England.

1945–The surrender of the Japanese troops in Hong Kong is accepted by Royal Navy Admiral Sir Cecil Harcourt.

1947–Typhoon Kathleen hits Saitama, Tokyo, and Tone River area, killing at least 1,930 people.

1948–Drummer, Kenney Jones, is born Kenneth Thomas Jones in Stepney, London, England. He was drummer for both The Faces and The Who.

1955–The military coup to unseat President Juan Perón of Argentina is launched at midnight.

1955–A Soviet Navy Zulu-class submarine becomes the first to launch a ballistic missile.

1956–TCN-9 Sydney is the first Australian television station to begin regular broadcasts.

1959–The first successful photocopier, the Xerox 914, is introduced in a demonstration on live television from New York City.

1961–The U.S. National Hurricane Research Project drops eight cylinders of silver iodide into the eyewall of Hurricane Esther. Wind speed reduces by 10%, giving rise to Project Stormfury.

1961–Typhoon Nancy, with possibly the strongest winds ever measured in a tropical cyclone, makes landfall in Osaka, Japan, killing 173 people.

1961–Pakistan establishes its Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission with Abdus Salam as its head.

1963–Malaysia is formed from the Federation of Malaya, Singapore, North Borneo (Sabah), and Sarawak. Singapore will soon leave the new country.

1963–The Beatles’ single She Loves You/I’ll Get You is released in the U.S. on the Swan label.

1963–Prior to reaching worldwide fame as one of The Beatles, George Harrison and his brother, Peter, come to America to visit their sister, Louise, who had been living in Benton, Illinois, since 1954. The book, Before He Was Fab, tells the story of this little-known visit.

1964–The Beatles, on tour in America, perform before a capacity crowd of 12,000 at City Park Stadium in New Orleans, Louisiana.

1964–ABC-TV launches the rock-themed TV show Shindig! The program had go-go girls and the biggest rock bands of the day in a dance party environment. Regulars are Jimmie O’Neill, the Shindig Dancers, and the show’s own house band, The Shindogs. First episode guests include: Sam Cooke, The Everly Brothers, The Wellingtons, The Righteous Brothers, and Bobby Sherman.

1965–The second season of the TV show Shindig! opens with The Rolling Stones performing Satisfaction. The Kinks, The Byrds, and The Everly Brothers also appear on the season opener.

1966–The Metropolitan Opera House opens at Lincoln Center in New York City with the world premiere of Samuel Barber's opera Antony and Cleopatra.

1967–Jimi Hendrix's debut LP, Are You Experienced?, is released.

1968–America says goodbye to Mayberry, as The Andy Griffith Show is seen for the final time on CBS-TV.

1970–King Hussein of Jordan declares military rule following the hijacking of four civilian airliners by the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP). This results in the formation of the Black September Palestinian paramilitary unit.

1970–Jimi Hendrix makes his final public appearance, performing on the same bill with Eric Burdon and War at Ronnie Scott's club in London, England. He will die two days later.

1974–President Ford announces a conditional amnesty program for Vietnam War deserters and draft-evaders.

1975–Papua New Guinea gains independence from Australia.

1975–Cape Verde, Mozambique, and São Tomé and Príncipe, join the United Nations.

1975–The first prototype of the Mikoyan MiG-31 interceptor makes its maiden flight.

1976–Armenian champion swimmer, Shavarsh Karapetyan, saves 20 people from a trolley bus that had fallen into a Yerevan reservoir.

1977–Singer Marc Bolan, frontman of rock group T. Rex, is killed in a car crash in Barnes, London, England, at age 29. Bolan was one of the pioneers of the glam rock movement of the 1970s.

1977–Opera singer, Maria Callas, dies of a heart attack in Paris, France, at age 53. She was one of the most renowned and influential opera singers of the 20th century.

1978–A 7.4 earthquake hits the city of Tabas, Iran, killing at least 15,000 people.

1980–Saint Vincent and the Grenadines join the United Nations.

1980–Frontier Village near San Jose, California, closes after 19 years of operation. It was a Western-based theme park built on 49 acres in 1961. The rides included: Stagecoach, Antique Autos, Indian Jim’s Canoes, Old 99 Railroad, Lost Dutchman Mine, Burro Pack Train, and Apache Whirlwind. Upon the closing, there was a public auction and everything was sold. There are no physical remains of the park today.

1984–Novelist, poet, and short story writer, Richard Brautigan, dies of a self-inflicted gunshot wound to the head at his home in Bolinas, California. His body was discovered on October 25, 1984, by his friend, Robert Yench. The date of Brautigan's death was determined by the level of decomposition as well as reports by neighbors of hearing a loud noise on September 16th, a few days after Brautigan last spoke with anyone. Brautigan had suffered from alcoholism and depression for years. He is best known for his 1967 novel Trout Fishing in America.

1987–The Montreal Protocol is signed to protect the ozone layer from depletion.

1990–The railroad between the People's Republic of China and Kazakhstan is completed at Dostyk, adding a sizable link to the concept of the Eurasian Land Bridge.

1991–Actress, Carol White, dies of liver disease in Miami, Florida, at age 48. During the late 1960s, White was considered one of the most promising actresses in British cinema. She appeared in the films Kind Hearts and Coronets, Carry On Teacher, Never Let Go, Up the Junction, Cathy Come Home, I'll Never Forget What's'isname, Poor Cow, The Fixer, and Daddy's Gone A-Hunting.

1992–The trial of the deposed Panamanian dictator, Manuel Noriega, ends in the United States with a 40-year sentence for drug trafficking and money laundering.

1992–On what becomes known as Black Wednesday, the pound is forced out of the European Exchange Rate Mechanism by currency speculators and is forced to devalue against the German mark.

1993–The home of rock singer, Grace Slick, in Mill Valley, California, is destroyed by fire, when sparks from welders’ torches accidentally ignite dry grass. Damages are estimated at about $700,000.

1994–The British government lifts the broadcasting ban imposed against members of Sinn Féin and Irish paramilitary groups in 1988.

1996–Actor and dancer, Gene Nelson, dies of cancer in Los Angeles, California, at age 76. He appeared in the films This is the Army, Gentleman’s Agreement, Apartment for Peggy, Tea for Two, The West Point Story, Lullaby of Broadway, Three Sailors and a Girl, Atomic Man, Oklahoma!, Your Cheatin' Heart, and The Cool Ones.

1998–The members of Mott the Hoople play together for the first time in 24 years, at the Virgin Megastore on Oxford Street in London, England.

2001–Film producer, Samuel Z. Arkoff, dies in Burbank, California, at age 83. His films include It Conquered the World, The She-Creature, Dragstrip Girl, Invasion of the Saucer Men, The Amazing Colossal Man, High School Hellcats, Circus of Horrors, Pit and the Pendulum, Panic in Year Zero!, Beach Party, The Last Man on Earth, Muscle Beach Party, Bikini Beach, Pajama Party, Beach Blanket Bingo, Ski Party, How to Stuff a Wild Bikini, The Wild Angels, Wild in the Streets, Chastity, The Dunwich Horror, Boxcar Bertha, Dillinger, Return to Macon County, Futureworld, and The Amityville Horror.

2003–Actor and singer, Sheb Wooley, dies of leukemia in Nashville, Tennessee, at age 82. He is best known for his 1958 novelty song The Purple People Eater and the co-starring role of Pete Nolan in the TV Western series Rawhide. He appeared in the films Apache Drums, Little Big Horn, High Noon, Cattle Town, The Lusty Men, Johnny Guitar, Giant, Rio Bravo, The War Wagon, The Outlaw Josey Wales, Silverado, and Hoosiers.

2004–Hurricane Ivan makes landfall in Gulf Shores, Alabama, as a Category 3 hurricane.

2005–The Camorra organized crime boss, Paolo Di Lauro, is arrested in Naples, Italy.

2005–Physicist, Gordon Gould, dies of natural causes in New York, New York, at age 65. He invented the laser.

2007–One-Two-GO Airlines Flight 269, carrying 128 crew and passengers, crashes in Thailand killing 89 people.

2009–Mary Travers, of Peter, Paul & Mary, dies of leukemia in Danbury, Connecticut, at age 72. The trio’s biggest hit was Puff The Magic Dragon.

2013–A gunman kills twelve people at the Navy Yard in Washington, D.C.

2013–Dancer and choreographer, Patsy Swayze, dies from stroke complications at her home in Simi Valley, California, at age 86. Her credits include the choreography for Urban Cowboy, Liar's Moon, and Hope Floats.

2014–For 44 hours, a crowd gathered around McCormick Place in Chicago, Illinois, to watch a car come to life as a printer built it upwards layer-by-layer as part of the International Manufacturing Technology Show. The Strati (which is Italian for “layer”) is an electric-powered two-seater car with a range of 120 miles. It can go as fast as 40 mph and is built out of carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastic. The car was designed by Jay Rogers CEO of Local Motors.

2014–The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) launches its Kobani offensive against Syrian-Kurdish forces.

2016–The Commission on Presidential Debates officially announces the invitation of Democratic Party nominee, Hillary Clinton, and GOP nominee, Donald Trump, to the first presidential debate to be held at Hofstra University in Hempstead, New York, on September 26th. However, third party candidates, Gary Johnson and Jill Stein, did not met the criteria, and will not participate in the debate.

2016–The Obama administration agrees to have the U.S. Armed Forces assist Japan on conducting joint patrols in the South China Sea.

2016–Typhoon Meranti hits mainland China and Taiwan, killing at least eight people and destroying 1,600 houses.

2016–Playwright, Edward Albee, dies in Montauk, New York, at age 88. His works include A Delicate Balance, Seascape, and Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?

2016–Former Prime Minister and 10th President of Italy, Carlo Azeglio Ciampi, dies at age 95.

2017–Bangladesh announces plans to build refugee camps the size of a small cities to house nearly 400,000 Rohingya refugees.

PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: The Mayflower; Henry Steinway; Allen Funt; Peter Falk; the Xerox 914 photocopier; the title for the TV series Shindig!; The Andy Griffith Show; Marc Bolan; Carol White; Sheb Wooley; and Edward Albee.

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