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1989–Ruhollah Khomeini, Iranian Ayatollah, is born in Khomeyn, Persia (present-day Iran). He was an Iranian religious leader, revolutionary, and politician. He was the leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution, which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the Shah of Iran. Following the revolution, Khomeini became the country's Supreme Leader, a position created in Iran’s constitution as the highest-ranking political and religious authority of the nation, which he held until his death.

15–Roman Emperor, Vitellius, is born Aulus Vitellius in Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire. He was emperor for eight months, from from April 16 to December 22, 69.

366–Pope Liberius dies in Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire.

622–Muhammad and his followers complete their Hijra from Mecca to Medina to escape religious persecution.

768–Frankish King, Pepin the Short, dies in Saint-Denis, France, at age 54. He was succeeded by his sons, Charlemagne and Carloman.

1143–Pope Innocent II dies in Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire.

1180–Manuel I Komnenos, the last Emperor of the Komnenian restoration, dies at age 61.

1230–Alfonso IX of León dies in Villanueva de Sarria, at age 59.

1459–Eric of Pomerania, King of Norway, Denmark, and Sweden, dies at Rügenwalde Castle in Rügenwalde, Pomerania (present-day Darlowo, Poland), at age 78.

1534–Guru Ram Das, fourth of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism, is born Bhai Jetha in Chuna Mandi, Lahore, Punjab, Mughal Empire (present-day Pakistan). Ram Das became the Guru of Sikhism in 1574, and served as the Sikh leader until his death in 1581.

1645–The Battle of Rowton Heath is a Parliamentarian victory over a Royalist army commanded in person by King Charles.

1664–The Dutch Republic surrenders New Amsterdam to England.

1674–The second Tantrik Coronation of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj takes place.

1732–Emperor Reigen of Japan dies at age 78.

1780–Benedict Arnold flees to British Army lines when the arrest of British Major John André exposes Arnold's plot to surrender West Point.

1789–The U.S. Congress passes the Judiciary Act, which creates the office of the U.S. Attorney General, the federal judiciary system, and orders the composition of the Supreme Court of the United States. The United States Post Office is also created.

1830–A revolutionary committee of notables forms the Provisional Government of Belgium.

1841–The Sultan of Brunei cedes Sarawak to the United Kingdom.

1846–General Zachary Taylor captures Monterrey in the Mexican-American War.

1852–The first airship powered by (a steam) engine travels 17 miles from Paris to Trappes. It was created by Henri Giffard.

1853–Admiral Despointes formally takes possession of New Caledonia in the name of France.

1869–Gold prices plummet when Ulysses S. Grant orders the Treasury to sell large quantities of gold after Jay Gould and James Fisk plot to control the market.

1870–Engineer, Georges Claude, is born in Paris, France. He invented the neon light. He has been considered by some to be "the Edison of France."

1873–"Satyashodhak Samaj" (Truth-seeker Movement) is established by Mahatma Jyotirao Phule at Pune, Maharashtra, India.

1890–The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints officially renounces polygamy.

1896–Writer, F. Scott Fitzgerald, is born Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald in St. Paul, Minnesota. He was named for his distant relative, composer Francis Scott Key. As a boy he always wanted to write, and did so in the backs of his schoolbooks and in the margins of his math papers. He flunked out of Princeton, joined the Army, then became an advertising man in New York City at $90 a month. His works include the novels The Great Gatsby and Tender is the Night; the short stories Bernice Bobs Her Hair and The Curious Case of Benjamin Button; and the short story collections Tales of the Jazz Age, Babylon Revisited and Other Stories, and The Short Stories of F. Scott Fitzgerald.

1906–President Theodore Roosevelt proclaims Devils Tower in Wyoming as the nation's first National Monument.

1911–His Majesty's Airship No. 1, Britain's first rigid airship, is wrecked by strong winds before her maiden flight at Barrow-in-Furness.

1914–In World War I, the Siege of Przemysl (present-day Poland) begins.

1920–Russian jeweler and creator of the Fabergé egg, Peter Carl Fabergé, dies in exile in Switzerland, at age 74. Fabergé was persona non grata in Russia after the 1917 revolution, due to the favor shown him by Russian royalty. His family believed he died of a broken heart.

1921–Sportscaster, Jim McKay, is born James Kenneth McManus in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He is best known for hosting ABC's Wide World of Sports (1961-1998). McKay covered a wide variety of special events, including the Kentucky Derby, the British Open, and the Indianapolis 500.

1931–Actor-singer, Anthony Newley, is born in London, England. He had a big hit with What Kind of Fool Am I? He appeared in the films Vice Versa, Oliver Twist, A Boy, a Girl and a Bike, X the Unknown, The Good Companions, Idol on Parade, The Jazz Boat, Doctor Doolittle, Sweet November, and Alice in Wonderland. He was married to actress, Joan Collins.

1932–Gandhi and Dr. B.R. Ambedkar agree to the Poona Pact, which reserves seats in the Indian provincial legislatures for the "Depressed Classes" (Untouchables).

1935–Earl and Weldon Bascom produce the first rodeo ever held outdoors under electric lights at Columbia, Mississippi.

1936–Puppeteer, Jim Henson, is born James Maury Henson in is born in Greenville, Mississippi. He was the creator of The Muppets (Kermit the Frog, Big Bird, Bert & Ernie, Miss Piggy, and Oscar the Grouch).

1939–Film producer, Carl Laemmle, dies of cardiovascular disease in Los Angeles, California, at age 72. In the early 1900s, he got involved in producing movies, forming Independent Moving Pictures (IMP). On April 30, 1912, Laemmle of IMP, Pat Powers of Powers Motion Picture Company, Mark Dintenfass of Champion Film Company, William Swanson of Rex Motion Picture Company, David Horsley of Nestor Film Company, and Charles Baumann and Adam Kessel of the New York Motion Picture Company, merged their studios and incorporated the Universal Film Manufacturing Company, with Laemmle assuming the role of president. They founded the Company with studios in Fort Lee, New Jersey, where many early film studios were based at the beginning of the 20th century. In 1915, the studio moved to 235 acres of land in the San Fernando Valley in Southern California.

1941–Linda (Louise) Eastman is born in Scarsdale, New York. She was a photographer, animal rights activist, and healthy food entrepreneur. She was married to musician, Paul McCartney. The couple’s children are Heather McCartney, Mary McCartney, Stella McCartney, and James McCartney.

1942–Bandleader, Glenn Miller, ends his broadcasts for Chesterfield Cigarettes. As he has enlisted in the U.S. Army to serve during World War II.

1942–Gerry Marsden, of Gerry & the Pacemakers, is born in Liverpool, England. The popular Merseyside group had the hits Don’t Let the Sun Catch You Crying and How Do You Do It during the height of the British Invasion.

1945–Television commentator, Lou Dobbs, is born Louis Carl Dobbs in Childress County, Texas. He is the host of Lou Dobbs Tonight on Fox Business Network. He had previously anchored Lou Dobbs Tonight on CNN until November 2009.

1946–Cathay Pacific Airways is founded in Hong Kong.

1946–Clark Clifford and George Elsey, military advisers to President Harry S. Truman, present him with a top-secret report on the Soviet Union that first recommends the containment policy.

1948–The Honda Motor Company is founded.

1950–Forest fires black out the sun over portions of Canada and New England. A blue moon is seen as far away as Europe.

1950–Political pundit, Alan (Samuel) Colmes, is born in Manhattan, New York. He was a radio and television host and blogger. He hosted The Alan Colmes Show, a nationally syndicated talk-radio show distributed by Fox News Radio. From 1996 to 2009, Colmes served as the co-host of Hannity & Colmes, a nightly political debate show on Fox News Channel.

1957–Camp Nou, the largest stadium in Europe, is opened in Barcelona, Spain.

1955–Judy Garland makes her TV debut on Ford Star Jubilee on CBS-TV.

1957–President Eisenhower sends 1,000 troops to Little Rock, Arkansas, to insure the desegregation of Central High School.

1958–Actor and libertarian activist, Kevin Sorbo, is born in Mound, Minnesota. Sorbo took on modeling jobs while in college to help pay tuition. In 1994, Sorbo landed the role of Hercules in the made-for-TV movie, Hercules and the Amazon Women. Several more Hercules franchise movies led to the TV series Hercules: The Legendary Journeys, for which he is best known. He has appeared in numerous TV western and Christian-themed movies. He has also had guest appearances on numerous TV shows, including Dharma and Greg, Psych, Two and a Half Men, and Hawaii Five-O. Sorbo has stated his belief that his Christian views have limited his career in Hollywood.

1960–USS Enterprise, the world's first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, is launched.

1967–The Beatles film the scene of them gliding down a long, ballroom staircase dressed in white tux and tails for their self-produced film Magical Mystery Tour.

1968–Swaziland joins the United Nations.

1968–The longest-running newsmagazine on television, 60 Minutes, debuts on CBS-TV. Its two correspondents are Mike Wallace and Harry Reasoner.

1968–The TV series The Mod Squad debuts on ABC-TV.

1973–Guinea-Bissau declares its independence from Portugal.

1975–Dougal Haston and Doug Scott on the Southwest Face expedition become the first people to reach the summit of Mount Everest by any of its faces.

1976–The stage show, Oh! Calcutta!, opens at the Edison Theater in New York City for 5,959 performances.

1979–CompuServe launches the first consumer internet service, which features the first public electronic mail (email) service.

1982–Prince’s single, 1999, is released.

1988–Police arrest soul singer, James Brown, in Georgia, after a two-state car chase.

1989–Ruhollah Khomeini, Iranian Ayatollah, is born in Khomeyn, Persia (present-day Iran). He was an Iranian religious leader, revolutionary, and politician. He was the leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution, which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the Shah of Iran. Following the revolution, Khomeini became the country's Supreme Leader, a position created in Iran’s constitution as the highest-ranking political and religious authority of the nation, which he held until his death.

1991–Writer and cartoonist, Theodor Seuss Geisel (better known as Dr. Seuss), dies of oral cancer at his home in La Jolla, California, at age 87. His work includes several of the most popular children's books of all time, selling over 600 million copies and being translated into more than 20 languages by the time of his death. His classics include If I Ran the Zoo (1950), Horton Hears a Who! (1955), If I Ran the Circus (1956), The Cat in the Hat (1957), How the Grinch Stole Christmas! (1957), and Green Eggs and Ham (1960).

1993–The Cambodian monarchy is restored, with Norodom Sihanouk as king.

1993–Former Philippine First Lady, Imelda Marcos, is convicted of corruption and sentenced to at least 18 years in jail.

1996–The United States, China, France, Russia, and Great Britain become the first signatories of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty banning nuclear tests. Sixty-six other nations will also sign the treaty.

1998–Elvis Presley is inducted into the Country Music Hall of Fame.

1999–Hank Williams is the subject of the first-ever country music symposium at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. “A Tribute To Hank Williams” begins with Lucinda Williams, Kim Richey, Kathy Mattea, and Steve Earle performing the works of the late country music godfather.

2005–Hurricane Rita makes landfall in the United States, devastating portions of southwestern Louisiana and extreme southeastern Texas.

2007–Between 30,000 and 100,000 people take part in anti-government protests in Yangon, Burma.

2009–The G20 summit begins in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, with 30 global leaders in attendance. It marks the first use of Long-Range Acoustic Devices in U.S. history.

2009–Susan Atkins, a member of the “Manson Family,” dies of natural causesat the Central California Women's facility in Chowchilla, California, at age 61. She was convicted for her participation in eight of the Charles Manson killings, including the most notorious, the Tate/LaBianca murders. She was sentenced to death, which was subsequently commuted to life in prison. Atkins was the longest-incarcerated female inmate in the California penal system, having been denied parole 18 times.

2013–A 7.7 earthquake strikes southern Pakistan, killing more than 327 people.

2014–The Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), an orbiter launched into Earth orbit by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), is successfully inserted into the orbit of Mars.

2014–Deborah Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire, dies in England, at age 94. She was an English writer, memoirist, and socialite. She was the youngest, and last surviving, of the six Mitford sisters, who were prominent members of English society in the 1930s and 1940s.

2015–At least 1,100 people are killed, and 934 others are injured, after a stampede during the Hajj in Saudi Arabia.

2016–China's five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Telescope in Guizhou province becomes the world's largest single-dish telescope.

2016–Actor, Bill Nunn, dies of cancer in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, at age 62. He appeared in the films School Daze, Do the Right Thing, Cadillac Man, Mo’ Better Blues, White Lie, New Jack City, Regarding Henry, Sister Act, True Crime, Things to Do in Denver When You’re Dead, Extreme Measures, and Spider-Man.

2016–Accordionist and bandleader, Buckwheat Zydeco, dies of lung cancer in Lafayette, Louisiana, at age 68. He was one of the few zydeco artists to achieve mainstream success. Buckwheat Zydeco played at many major music festivals, including the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival, Newport Folk Festival, Summerfest, San Diego Street Scene, Bumbershoot, Montreux Jazz Festival, and the Voodoo Experience.

PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Manuel I Komnenos; F. Scott Fitzgerald; Anthony Newley; Linda Eastman; Michael Cole, Clarence Williams III, and Peggy Lipton of The Mod Squad; Dr. Seuss; and Susan Atkins.

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