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1995–Attorney, William Kunstler, dies in Manhattan, New York, at age 76. He was a self-described "radical lawyer" and civil rights activist, known for his politically unpopular clients. He defended the Chicago Seven, and members of the Black Panther Party and the Weather Underground.

422–Pope Boniface I dies in Rome, Italy.

476–Romulus Augustulus, last Emperor of the Western Roman Empire, is deposed when Odoacer proclaims himself "King of Italy," ending the Western Roman Empire.

626–Li Shimin, posthumously known as Emperor Taizong of Tang, assumes the throne over the Tang dynasty of China.

714–Emperor Shang of Tang dies at age 20. Most traditional historians did not consider him a legitimate emperor and do not include him in the list of emperors of the Tang dynasty, although modern historians usually do.

929–Slavic forces (the Redarii and the Obotrites) are defeated by a Saxon army near the fortified stronghold of Lenzen in Brandenburg, Germany.

1037–Bermudo III of León dies during the Battle of Tamarón in León, Spain, at age 20.

1199–Joan of England, Queen of Sicily, dies during childbirth at Fontevrault Abbey in the village of Fontevraud-l'Abbaye, near Chinon, Anjou, France, at age 33.

1241–Alexander III of Scotland, King of Scotts, is born at Roxburgh Castle, Roxburghshire, Scotland. He was the only son of Alexander II and the grandson of William the Lion.

1260–The Sienese Ghibellines, supported by the forces of Manfred, King of Sicily, defeat the Florentine Guelphs at Montaperti, Tuscany, Italy.

1308–Margaret of Burgundy, Queen of Sicily, dies at age 58.

1323–Gegeen Khan, Emperor Yingzong of Yuan, dies during the Coup d'état at Nanpo, at age 21.

1479–The Treaty of Alcacovas is signed by the Catholic Monarchs of Castile and Aragon on one side and Afonso V and his son, Prince John of Portugal.

1515–Bohemian Queen, Barbara of Brandenburg, dies in Ansbach, Brandenburg-Ansbach, at age 51.

1557–Sophie of Mecklenburg-Güstrow is born in Wismar, Germany. She was a German noble and Queen of Denmark and Norway.

1563–Wanli Emperor of China is born Zhu Yijun in China. He was the 13th Emperor of the Ming Dynasty.

1607–The Flight of the Earls takes place in Ireland. Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone, and Rory O'Donnell, 1st earl of Tyrconnell, and about 90 followers left Ulster for mainland Europe. Fearing arrest, they chose to flee to the Continent, where they hoped to recruit an army for the invasion of Ireland with Spanish help.

1609–Henry Hudson sights the island of Manhattan in his voyage up the Hudson River.

1666–The most destructive damage from the Great Fire of London, England, occurs.

1759–Princess Elizabeth of Great Britain dies of inflammation in her bowels at Kew Palace, Surrey, London, England, at age 18. She had suffered ill health most of her life.

1774–New Caledonia is first sighted by Europeans, during the second voyage of Captain James Cook.

1781–Los Angeles, California, is founded. The Mexican Provincial Governor, Felipe de Neve, founded “El Pueblo de Nuestra Senora la Reina de Los Angeles,” originally named “Nuestra Senora la Reina de Los Angeles de Porciuncula,” by Gaspar de Portola, a Spanish army captain and Juan Crespi, a Franciscan priest, who had noticed the beautiful area as they traveled north from San Diego in 1769. “El Pueblo de Nuestra Senora la Reina de Los Angeles” translates into the “Village of our Lady, the Queen of the Angels.”

1800–The French garrison in Valletta surrenders to British troops who had been called at the invitation of the Maltese. The islands of Malta and Gozo become the Malta Protectorate.

1803–Sarah Childress Polk, wife of President James K. Polk, is born in Murfreesboro, Tennessee. She was the 14th First Lady of the United States.

1812–In the War of 1812, the Siege of Fort Harrison begins when the fort is set on fire.

1846–Architect and urban designer, Daniel Hudson Burnham, is born in Henderson, New York. He was instrumental in creating designs for the cities of Chicago, Illinois, and Washington, D.C. He was also the designer of the World's Columbian Exposition, as well as several famous buildings, including the Flatiron Building, Washington D.C.'s Union Station, and the Continental Trust Company Tower in Baltimore, Maryland.

1862–In the American Civil War, General Robert E. Lee takes the Army of Northern Virginia, and the war, into the North.

1870–Emperor Napoleon III of France is deposed and the Third Republic is declared.

1882–The first electric power plant in America begins operation. It is the Edison Electric power station on Pearl Street in New York City, supplying home and commercial users.

1886–After almost 30 years of fighting, Apache leader, Geronimo, with his remaining warriors, surrenders to General Nelson Miles in Arizona.

1888–George Eastman registers the trademark Kodak and receives a patent for his new easy-to-use Kodak camera that uses roll film.

1901–Businessman, William Lyons, is born in Blackpool, England. With fellow motorcycle enthusiast, William Walmsley, he was the co-founder of the Swallow Sidecar Company in 1922, which became Jaguar Cars Limited after World War II.

1907–Composer, Edvard Grieg, dies after a long illness in the coastal town of Bergen, Norway, at age 64. His final words were, "Well, if it must be so." his funeral drew between 30,000 and 40,000 people out on the streets of his home town to honor him. He is widely considered one of the leading Romantic era composers, and his music is part of the standard classical repertoire worldwide.

1912–Albanian rebels succeed in their revolt when the Ottoman Empire agrees to fulfill their demands.

1913–Gangster, Mickey Cohen, is born Meyer Harris Cohen in Brooklyn, New York. During Prohibition, Cohen moved to Chicago and became involved in organized crime working as an enforcer for the Chicago Outfit, where he briefly met Al Capone. In 1939, Cohen was sent to Los Angeles by Meyer Lansky and Lou Rothkopf to work under Benny Siegel. During their association, Mickey helped set up the Flamingo Hotel in Las Vegas, Nevada, and ran its sports book operation. In 1950, Cohen was investigated, along with numerous other underworld figures, by a U.S. Senate committee. As a result, in 1951, Cohen was convicted of tax evasion and sentenced to prison for four years.

1913–Architect, Kenzo Tange, is born in Osaka, Japan. He designed buildings in his unique style on five continents, which combined elements of Japanese design with Modernism. Among his most recognized designs are the Peace Centre in Hiroshima, the Tokyo Olympic arenas, and St. Mary's Cathedral in Tokyo.

1918–Radio host, Paul Harvey (Aurandt), is born in Tulsa, Oklahoma. He was a conservative radio broadcaster for the ABC Radio Networks. From the 1950s through the 1990s, Harvey's programs reached as many as 24 million people a week. Paul Harvey News was carried on 1,200 radio stations, 400 Armed Forces Network stations, and 300 newspapers.

1919–Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, who founded the Republic of Turkey, gathers a congress in Sivas to make decisions as to the future of Anatolia and Thrace.

1919–Actor, Howard Morris, is born in the Bronx, New York. He is best known for the role of Ernest T. Bass on the TV series The Andy Griffith Show. He appeared in the films Boy’s Night Out, 40 Pounds of Trouble, The Nutty Professor, Way... Way Out, The Big Mouth, With Six You Get Eggroll, Don’t Drink the Water, The Comic, High Anxiety, History of the World: Part I, and Splash.

1920–Cookbook author, Craig Claiborne, is born in Sunflower, Mississippi. He was Food Editor and Restaurant Critic for The New York Times. Along with chef, Julia Child, Claiborne has been credited with making the often intimidating world of French, and other ethnic cuisine, accessible to an American audience.

1923–The maiden flight of the first U.S. airship, the USS Shenandoah, takes place.

1928–Wingy Manone records Downright Disgusted for Vocalion Records. Playing drums for Wingy was a young sideman named Gene Krupa.

1928–Actor, Dick York, is born Richard Allen York in Fort Wayne, Indiana. He is best known as the first “Darren” on the TV series Bewitched. He appeared on the TV shows Alfred Hitchcock Presents, Playhouse 90, The Millionaire, The Untouchables, The Twilight Zone, Naked City, Dr. Kildare, Rawhide, Wagon Train, Thriller, and Route 66.

1931–Singer-actress, Mitzi Gaynor, is born Francesca Marlene de Czanyi von Gerber in Chicago, Illinois. She is remembered for her appearance between two sets by The Beatles, when they made their second appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show on February 16, 1964: she performed for an unprecedented nine-minute segment from the stage of the Deauville Hotel in Miami Beach, Florida, separated with one commercial break. She appeared in the films My Blue Heaven, Golden Girl, Bloodhounds of Broadway, There’s No Business Like Show Business, Anything Goes, The Joker is Wild, Les Girls, and South Pacific.

1939–In World War II, a Bristol Blenheim is the first British aircraft to cross the German coast to bomb German ships, following the declaration of war.

1940–CBS-TV begins broadcasting television as station W2XAB.

1941–In World War II, a German submarine makes the first attack against a United States ship, the USS Greer.

1941–Faber and Faber publishes T.S. Eliot's The Dry Salvages.

1942–Merald "Bubba" Knight, of Gladys Knight & the Pips, is born Merald Knight, Jr. in Atlanta, Georgia. The older brother of lead singer, Gladys Knight, Bubba served as the unofficial leader of the group, and was instrumental in handling the Pips' business matters.

1944–In World War II, the British 11th Armoured Division liberates Antwerp, Belgium.

1944–Finland exits from the war with the Soviet Union.

1946–Gary Duncan, of Quicksilver Messenger Service, is born Gary Ray Grubb in San Diego, California.

1946–Greg Elmore, drummer for Quicksilver Messenger Service, is born Gregory Dale Elmore at the Coronado Naval Air Station in California.

1948–Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands abdicates the throne for health reasons.

1949–The Peekskill riots erupt after a Paul Robeson concert in Peekskill, New York.

1950–Darlington Raceway is the site of the inaugural Southern 500, the first 500-mile NASCAR race.

1951–The first live transcontinental television broadcast takes place from the Japanese Peace Treaty Conference in San Francisco, California.

1951–Martin (Dale) Chambers, drummer for The Pretenders, is born in Hereford, England.

1951–Actress, Judith (Lee) Ivey, is born in El Paso, Texas. She appeared in the films The Lonely Guy, Harry & Son, The Woman in Red, Compromising Positions, Brighton Beach Memoirs, Hello Again, Miles from Home, In Country, Decoration Day, The Devil’s Advocate, and A Life Less Ordinary.

1957–Orval Faubus, Governor of Arkansas, calls out the National Guard to prevent black students from enrolling in Central High School.

1957–The Ford Motor Company introduces the Edsel.

1959–Bobby Darin’s hit, Mack the Knife, is banned by WCBS in New York, following the fatal stabbing of two teenagers by 17-year-old Salvador Agron.

1960–Comedian and actor, Damon (Kyle) Wayans, is born in New York, New York. He is best known for creating the TV series In Living Color. He appeared in the films Beverly Hills Cop, Hollywood Shuffle, Roxanne, Colors, Earth Girls Are Easy, Punchline, I’m Gonna Git You Sucka, The Last Boy Scout, Blankman, and Major Payne. He is a member of the Wayans family of entertainers: his brothers are actors, Marlon Wayans, Keenen Ivory Wayans.

1962–The Beatles’ have their first formal recording session at EMI’s Abbey Road studios. Two songs are picked for recording: The Beatles’ Love Me Do and Mitch Murray’s How Do You Do It.

1962–Dezo Hoffmann takes pictures of the Beatles during a pre-recording session rehearsal. This is the first of many historic Hoffmann photo sessions with the Fab Four.

1963–Swissair Flight 306 crashes near Dürrenäsch, Switzerland, killing all 80 people on board.

1963–Politician, Robert Schuman, dies in Scy-Chazelles, Lorraine, France, at age 77. He was a Christian Democrat (MRP) and an independent political thinker and activist. Twice Prime Minister of France, a reformist Minister of Finance, and a Foreign Minister, he was instrumental in building post-war European and trans-Atlantic institutions and is regarded as one of the founders of the European Union, the Council of Europe, and NATO.

1964–Scotland's Forth Road Bridge, near Edinburgh, officially opens.

1964–The Beatles, on tour in America, perform at Milwaukee Arena, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

1964–The Animals make their first U.S. appearance at the Paramount Theater in Brooklyn, New York.

1965–The Who stop by Battersea Dog's Home in London, England, to buy a guard dog. When they come out, they discover that their equipment van has been vandalized, with $10,000 in equipment stolen.

1965–A chart topper: Help! by The Beatles.

1965–Albert Schweitzer, physician, theologian, and missionary, dies in Lambaréné, Gabon, Africa, at age 90. He received the 1952 Nobel Peace Prize for his philosophy of "Reverence for Life," expressed in many ways, but most famously in founding and sustaining the Albert Schweitzer Hospital in Lambaréné, present-day Gabon, west central Africa.

1967–During the Vietnam War, Operation Swift begins when U.S. Marines engage the North Vietnamese in battle in the Que Son Valley.

1970–Salvador Allende is elected President of Chile.

1970–George Harrison releases My Sweet Lord.

1971–Alaska Airlines Flight 1866 crashes near Juneau, Alaska, killing all 111 people on board.

1971–A chart topper: Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey by Paul and Linda McCartney.

1971–Actress, Ione Skye, is born Ione Skye Leitch in Hertfordshire, England. She appeared in the films River’s Edge, Say Anything..., The Rachel Papers, Gas Food Lodging, Wayne’s World, Samantha, and But I’m a Cheerleader. Her father is singer-songwriter, Donovan.

1972–Mark Spitz becomes the first competitor to win seven medals at a single Olympic Games.

1973–A chart topper: Let’s Get It On by Marvin Gaye.

1975–The Sinai Interim Agreement relating to the Arab-Israeli conflict is signed.

1977–The Golden Dragon massacre takes place in San Francisco, California. It was a gang-related shooting attack that took place inside the Golden Dragon Restaurant, located at 816 Washington Street in Chinatown. The five perpetrators, members of the Joe Boys, a Chinese youth gang, were attempting to kill members of the Wah Ching, a rival Chinatown gang. The attack left five people dead and 11 others injured, none of them gang members. The gang members were later convicted and sentenced in connection with the murders.

1981–Singer, Beyoncé, is born Beyoncé Giselle Knowles in Houston, Texas. She rose to fame in the late 1990s, as lead singer of the R & B girl group, Destiny's Child. Managed by her father, Mathew Knowles, the group became one of the world's best-selling girl groups. She went on to become an equally successful solo artist. Throughout a career spanning 18 years, she has sold over 118 million records, making her one of the best-selling music artists of all time. She is married to rapper, Jay Z.

1985–The discovery is made of Buckminsterfullerene, the first fullerene molecule of carbon.

1989–In Leipzig, East Germany, the first of weekly demonstration for the legalisation of opposition groups and democratic reforms takes place.

1989–Ringo Starr and His All-Starr Band complete their first tour with a performance at the Greek Theater in Los Angeles, California.

1990–Actress, Irene Dunne, dies in Los Angeles, California, at age 91. She appeared in the films Show Boat, The Awful Truth, Love Affair, My Favorite Wife, A Guy Named Joe, The White Cliffs of Dover, Anna and the King of Siam, Life with Father, I Remember Mama, and Never a Dull Moment.

1991–Actor, Tom Tryon, dies of stomach cancer in Los Angeles, California, at age 65. He appeared in the films Screaming Eagles, Three Violent People, The Unholy Wife, I Married a Monster from Outer Space, The Story of Ruth, Moon Pilot, The Longest Day, Something's Got to Give, and In Harm's Way.

1991–Country singer, Dottie West, dies during surgery from injuries sustained in an automobile accident in Nashville, Tennessee, at age 58. In the 1960s, West was one of the few female country singers working in what was then a male-dominated industry, having a string of “Top 10” and “Top 20” hits on the country music charts.

1993–Actor, Hervé Villechaize, dies of suicide from a self-inflicted gunshot wound in North Hollywood, California, at age 50. He left a suicide note saying he was despondent over longtime health problems. Villechaize was suffering from chronic pain due to having normal sized internal organs putting increasing pressure on his small body (he was a dwarf). He is best known for his co-starring role on the TV series Fantasy Island.

1995–Attorney, William Kunstler, dies in Manhattan, New York, at age 76. He was a self-described "radical lawyer" and civil rights activist, known for his politically unpopular clients. He defended the Chicago Seven, and members of the Black Panther Party and the Weather Underground.

1996–The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) attack a military base in Guaviare, starting three weeks of guerrilla warfare in which at least 130 Colombians are killed.

1998–The Google search engine is founded by Larry Page and Sergey Brin, two students at Stanford University in Northern California.

2000–David Brown, bass player for Santana, dies of liver and kidney failure at age 50.

2001–Tokyo DisneySea opens to the public as part of the Tokyo Disney Resort in Urayasu, Chiba, Japan.

2002–The Oakland Athletics win their 20th consecutive game, an American League record.

2007–Three terrorists, suspected to be a part of Al-Qaeda, are arrested in Germany after allegedly planning attacks on both the Frankfurt International airport and U.S. military installations.

2010–A 7.1 earthquake strikes the South Island of New Zealand, causing widespread damage and several power outages.

2014–Comedienne, Joan Rivers, dies of cardiac arrest in Manhattan, New York, at age 81. She never awoke from a medically induced coma brought on by complications from minor throat surgery. The New York City Medical Examiner's Office said she died from brain damage caused by a lack of oxygen. On January 26, 2015, Melissa Rivers filed a malpractice lawsuit against the clinic and doctors who had performed surgery on her mother. During Joan Rivers successful 55-year career as a comedienne, her tough-talking style of satirical humor was both praised and criticized as truthful and often abrasive. By her bravura, she broke through long-standing taboos in humor, which paved the way for other female comics, including Roseanne Barr, Ellen DeGeneres, and Rosie O'Donnell.

2015–Musician, Bob Geldof, offers to house four Syrian refugee familes at his two homes in Britain, calling the migrants crisis a "sickening disgrace." The U.K. had already taken in 5,000 refugees fleeing the Islamic State and supplied £900 million in aid.

2015–Child actress, Jean Darling, dies after a sudden illness in Rödermark, Germany, at age 93. She began her career in movies at six months old as a freelance baby. Later, she was a regular in the Our Gang short subjects series from 1927 to 1929. In 1974, Darling moved to Dublin, Ireland, where she wrote mystery stories and had over 50 short stories published in Alfred Hitchcock's Mystery Magazine and Whispers.

2016–Google drops its plans for Project Ara, the modular smartphone concept that aimed to let people ‘upgrade’ their cellular phones piece by piece (instead of buying whole new phone).

2016–EU President, Donald Tusk, says Europe is "close to limits" on its ability to accept new waves of refugees from the Middle East.

2016–In light of terrorist attacks, the governments of Australia, Canada, Singapore, the United Kingdom, and the United States issue travel warnings against going to Mindanao, Philippines.

2016–Mother Teresa, known for working with the desperately poor, is canonized in a ceremony at the Vatican: she is now Saint Teresa.

PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Bermudo III of León; the island of Manhattan as it would have looked in 1609; Geronimo; Kenzo Tange; Dick York; Gladys Knight & the Pips; Judith Ivey; The Beatles record Love Me Do at EMI's Abbey Road Studios in London, England; Albert Schweitzer; Let’s Get It On by Marvin Gaye; Irene Dunne; William Kunstler; and Joan Rivers.

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