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1955–Actor, James Dean, dies in a two-car collision near Cholame, California, at age 24. He suffers fatal injuries at the intersection of Routes 46 and 41, near the tiny farm town. Dean’s Porsche Spyder hit the other car head-on at 75 miles an hour. James Dean souvenirs are for sale at the Jack Ranch Cafe, a half-mile west of the crash scene. Located near the cafe is the Dean “memorial,” financed by Japanese fan Seita Ohnishi. Dean’s mechanic, Rolf Wutherich, who was in the Porsche with Dean, was gravely injured, but gradually recovered. Dean appeared in the films East of Eden, Giant, and Rebel Without a Cause.

489–In the Battle of Verona, the Ostrogoths, under King Theoderic the Great, defeat the forces of Odoacer for the second time at Verona (Northern Italy).

1227–Pope Nicholas IV is born Girolamo Masci in Lisciano, Marche, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire. He was the first Franciscan to be elected Pope.

1399–Henry IV is proclaimed King of England.

1452–The first book published is Johann Guttenberg’s Bible.

1486–Arthur, Prince of Wales, is born at Winchester Cathedral Priory in Winchester, Kingdom of England. Arthur was viewed by contemporaries as the great hope of the newly established House of Tudor.

1541–Spanish conquistador, Hernando de Soto, and his forces enter Tula territory in present-day western Arkansas, encountering fierce resistance.

1744–France and Spain defeat the Kingdom of Sardinia at the Battle of Madonna dell'Olmo.

1791–The National Constituent Assembly in Paris, France, is dissolved. Parisians hail Maximilien Robespierre and Jérôme Pétion as "incorruptible patriots."

1791–Mozart's opera, The Magic Flute (Die Zauberflöte), premieres at Freihaus-Theater auf der Wieden in Vienna, Austria.

1813–In the Battle of Bárbula, Simón Bolívar defeats Santiago Bobadilla.

1860–Britain's first tram service begins in Birkenhead, Merseyside England.

1882–Thomas Edison's first commercial hydroelectric power plant (later known as Appleton Edison Light Company) begins operation on the Fox River in Appleton, Wisconsin.

1888–Jack the Ripper kills his third and fourth victims, Elizabeth Stride and Catherine Eddowes.

1895–Madagascar becomes a French protectorate.

1903–The new Gresham's School (an independent co-educational boarding school in Holt in Norfolk, England) is officially opened by Field Marshal Sir Evelyn Wood.

1906–The Royal Galician Academy, Galician language's biggest linguistic authority, starts working in Havana.

1907–The McKinley National Memorial, the final resting place of assassinated President William McKinley and his family, is dedicated in Canton, Ohio.

1915–A Serbian army private becomes the first soldier in history to shoot down an enemy aircraft with ground-to-air fire.

1917–Jazz drummer, Buddy Rich, is born in Brooklyn, New York.

1921–Actress, Deborah Kerr, is born Deborah Jane Kerr-Trimmer in Glasgow, Lanarkshire, Scotland. She appeared in the films Love on the Dole, I See a Dark Stranger, Black Narcissus, The Hucksters, King Solomon’s Mines, Quo Vadis, The Prisoner of Zenda, From Here to Eternity, The End of the Affair, The King and I, Tea and Sympathy, Heaven Knows, Mr. Allison, An Affair to Remember, Separate Tables, The Sundowners, The Chalk Garden, The Night of the Iguana, and Witness for the Prosecution.

1922–Film director, Lamont Johnson, is born Ernest Lamont Johnson, Jr. in Stockton, California. His films include The Last American Hero, My Sweet Charlie, That Certain Summer, You’ll Like My Mother, Lipstick, and One on One.

1924–Writer, Truman Capote, is born Truman Streckfus Persons in New Orleans, Louisiana. He is best known for his novella, Breakfast at Tiffany’s, and his book In Cold Blood. At least 20 films and television dramas have been produced from Capote novels, stories, and plays. In the 1970s, Capote maintained his celebrity status by appearing regularly on television talk shows.

1927–Babe Ruth becomes the first baseball player to hit 60 home runs in a season.

1928–Professor and author, Eliezer (Elie) Wiesel, is born in Sighet, Transylvania, Kingdom of Romania. He was an Auschwitz survivor and political activist. Wiesel is the author of 57 fiction and non-fiction books. He is considered one of the most important writers of Holocaust literature. He was the recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize, the Presidential Medal of Freedom, and the Congressional Gold Medal, among numerous other honors.

1931–The "Die Voortrekkers" youth movement for Afrikaners in Bloemfontein, South Africa, begins.

1934–Actress, Anna Kashfi, is born Joan O'Callaghan in Darjeeling, British India. She was a British film actress of disputed ethnic heritage, who had a brief Hollywood career in the 1950s. Drug and alcohol problems reportedly contributed to the premature end of her acting career. She appeared in the films The Mountain, Battle Hymn, Cowboy, and Night of the Quarter Moon. She was married to actor, Marlon Branco, and their son was Christian Brando.

1935–The Hoover Dam, on the border between Arizona and Nevada, is dedicated.

1935–Porgy and Bess is presented for the first time at the Colonial Theatre in Boston, Massachusetts.

1936–Pinewood Studios opens in Buckinghamshire, England.

1938–Britain, France, Germany, and Italy sign the Munich Agreement, allowing Germany to occupy the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia.

1938–The League of Nations unanimously outlaws "intentional bombings of civilian populations."

1939–General Wladyslaw Sikorski becomes commander-in-chief of the Polish Government in exile.

1939–NBC-TV broadcasts the first televised American football game between the Waynesburg Yellow Jackets and the Fordham Rams. Fordham wins 34-7.

1942–Dewey Martin, drummer for Buffalo Springfield, is born.

1943–The U.S. Merchant Marine Academy (USMMA) at Kings Point, New York, is dedicated by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.

1945–The Bourne End rail crash, in Hertfordshire, England, kills 43 people.

1946–Twenty-two Nazi leaders are found guilty of war crimes at Nuremberg.

1947–Pakistan and Yemen join the United Nations.

1947–The World Series, featuring the New York Yankees and the Brooklyn Dodgers, is televised for the first time.

1948–Mark Bolan, of T-Rex, is born in London, England.

1949–The Berlin Airlift ends.

1952–The first film in “Cinerama” (very widescreen) is shown in New York City.

1952–Actor, Jack Wild, is born in Royton, Lancashire, England. He appeared in the films Oliver!, Pufnstuf, Flight of the Doves, The Pied Piper, and Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves.

1954–The U.S. Navy submarine, USS Nautilus, is commissioned as the world's first nuclear reactor powered vessel.

1954–Child actor, Barry Williams, is born in Santa Monica, California. He is best known for the role of Greg Brady on the TV sitcom The Brady Bunch.

1955–Actor, James Dean, dies in a two-car collision near Cholame, California, at age 24. He suffers fatal injuries at the intersection of Routes 46 and 41, near the tiny farm town. Dean’s Porsche Spyder hit the other car head-on at 75 miles an hour. James Dean souvenirs are for sale at the Jack Ranch Cafe, a half-mile west of the crash scene. Located near the cafe is the Dean “memorial,” financed by Japanese fan Seita Ohnishi. Dean’s mechanic, Rolf Wutherich, who was in the Porsche with Dean, was gravely injured, but gradually recovered. Dean appeared in the films East of Eden, Giant, and Rebel Without a Cause.

1960–The Flintstones debuts as America’s first prime-time animated TV series.

1960–On the last episode of The Howdy Doody Show, Clarabell the clown finally speaks: he says, “Goodbye, Kids.”

1962–Mexican-American labor leader, César Chávez, founds the National Farm Workers Association, which later becomes United Farm Workers.

1962–James Meredith enters the University of Mississippi, defying segregation.

1965–The Lockheed L-100, the civilian version of the C-130 Hercules, is introduced.

1965–The 30 September Movement attempts a coup against the Indonesian government, which is crushed by the military under Suharto and leads to a mass anti-communist purge, with over 500,000 people killed.

1965–The teen music show Shindig! features Donovan, The Hollies, The Turtles, and The Dave Clark Five.

1965–Country singer, Daron Norwood, is born in Lubbock, Texas. On November 5, 1995, Norwood decided to quit his career as a country singer due to his addiction to alcohol. He told The Lubbock-Avalanche Journal that during that time period, he was taking 20 to 25 shots of Jack Daniels a night. Norwood served as a motivational speaker. His program, called "Keep It Straight," was developed to warn children of the dangers of drug and alcohol abuse. His albums include Daron Norwood, Ready, Willing and Able, and I Still Believe.

1966–The British protectorate of Bechuanaland declares its independence, and becomes the Republic of Botswana. Seretse Khama takes office as the first President.

1967–BBC Light Programme, Third Programme, and Home Service are replaced with BBC Radio 2, 3, and 4. BBC Radio 1 is also launched, with Tony Blackburn presenting its first show.

1967–In an interview for the British magazine Disc And Music Echo, Frank Zappa affirms that John Lennon was right when he said that The Beatles were more popular than Jesus.

1968–The Boeing 747 is rolled out and shown to the public for the first time at the Boeing Everett Factory.

1968–Hunter Davies publishes The Beatles, the group’s first authorized biography.

1969–Feast of Friends is one of the special films presented by the Film Society of Lincoln Center at the 7th Annual New York Film Festival. It screens at 5:00 p.m. with filmmaker, Jim Morrison, in attendance.

1969–Tragedy strikes rocker, David Crosby, as his girlfriend Christine Gail Hinton dies in a car crash north of San Francisco, California.

1970–Jordan makes a deal with the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP), for the release of the remaining hostages from the Dawson's Field hijackings.

1971–The Soviet Union and the United States sign pacts that are aimed at avoiding an accidental nuclear war.

1971–A nine-member citizens committee is organized to investigate the Attica, New York, prison riot that broke out earlier in the month. Ten hostages and 32 prisoners were killed in the rioting, which was the worst in U.S. history.

1971–The progressive rock band, Yes, begin a British tour with Rick Wakeman behind the keyboards for the first time.

1972–Roberto Clemente records the 3,000th and final hit of his professional baseball career.

1975–The Hughes (later McDonnell Douglas, and present-day Boeing) AH-64 Apache makes its first flight. Eight years later, the first production model rolled out of the assembly line.

1977–Because of U.S. budget cuts and dwindling power reserves, the Apollo program's ALSEP experiment packages left on the Moon are shut down.

1977–Nick Curran, of The Fabulous Thunderbirds, is born Nicholas Michael Curran in Biddeford, Maine.

1979–The Hong Kong MTR commences service with the opening of its Modified Initial System (Kwun Tong Line).

1980–Ethernet specifications are published by Xerox, working with Intel and Digital Equipment Corporation.

1982–Cyanide-laced Tylenol kills six people near Chicago, Illinois.

1985–Charles Richter dies of congestive heart failure in Pasadena, California, at age 85. He developed the Richter Scale for measuring earthquakes.

1986–Mordechai Vanunu, who revealed details of Israel's covert nuclear program to the British media, is kidnapped in Rome, Italy, by the Israeli Mossad.

1987–The Coconut Grove, in Los Angeles, California, plays host to an all-star gathering, as Bruce Springsteen, Bonnie Raitt, Tom Waits, and Elvis Costello join Roy Orbison onstage to tape a TV special. The evening’s proceedings, that took place in front of a star-studded audience, is eventually released on video and DVD as Black and White Night.

1988–John Lennon gets a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.

1988–Al Holbert is fatally injured, when his privately-owned propeller-driven Piper PA-60 aircraft crashes shortly after takeoff near Columbus, Ohio.

1990–The Dalai Lama unveils the Canadian Tribute to Human Rights in Ottawa, Canada.

1992–Actor, Ezra (Matthew) Miller, is born in Wycoff, New Jersey. At six, Miller started to train as an opera singer as therapy for a speech impediment, going on to appear with the Metropolitan Opera, and performing in the premiere of Philip Glass's contemporary opera, White Raven. As an actor, he has appeared in the films Afterschool, City Island, Every Day, Another Happy Day, We Need to Talk About Kevin, The Perks of Being a Wallflower, Madame Bovary, and Trainwreck.

1993–More than 10,000 people are killed when a 6.3 earthquake strikes southern India. Over 130,000 are left homeless by the pre-dawn temblor. It is the worst earthquake to hit India in 50 years, flattening 52 villages and damaging hundreds more.

1994–The Aldwych tube station (originally Strand Station) of the London Underground closes after 88 years in service. And the Ongar railway station, the furthest London Underground from Central London, closes.

1994–Songwriter, Jule Styne, dies of heart failure in Manhattan, New York, at age 88. He is best known for a series of Broadway musicals, including Gentlemen Prefer Blondes, Peter Pan, Bells Are Ringing, Gypsy, Do Re Mi, Funny Girl, and Sugar. His best known songs include The Christmas Waltz, Don’t Rain on My Parade, Diamonds Are a Girl’s Best Friend, Everything’s Coming Up Roses, It’s Magic, People, Time After Time, and Let It Snow! Let It Snow!, Let It Snow!

1995–Comedian, George Kirby, dies of Parkinson's disease in a nursing home in Las Vegas, Nevada, at age 72. He was one of the first African-American comedians to begin to appeal to white, as well as black, audiences during the height of the Civil Rights era. Between 1963 and 1972 he appeared on Perry Como's Kraft Music Hall, The Ed Sullivan Show, The Dean Martin Show, The Jackie Gleason Show, Rowan and Martin's Laugh-In, and The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson.

1999–At an auction at Christie’s in London, England, John Lennon’s 1967 handwritten lyrics to I Am the Walrus are sold to an anonymous telephone bidder for £78,500 ($129,000). George Harrison’s 1962 Rickenbacker guitar is also auctioned, selling for $92,900.

1999–The Tokaimura nuclear accident, northeast of Tokyo, Japan, kills two technicians.

2003–Lawyer and businessman, Robert Kardashian, dies of esophageal cancer in Los Angeles, California, at age 59. He gained national recognition as O.J. Simpson's friend and defense attorney during Simpson's 1995 murder trial.

2004–The first images of a live giant squid in its natural habitat are taken 600 miles south of Tokyo, Japan.

2004–The AIM-54 Phoenix, the primary missile for the F-14 Tomcat, is retired from service. Almost two years later, the Tomcat itself is retired.

2009–Earthquakes occur in Sumatra, killing over 1,115 people.

2010–Television producer and screenwriter, Stephen J. Cannell, dies from complications of melanoma in Pasadena, California, at age 69. His productions include Ironside, Adam-12, Columbo, The Rockford Files, Baretta, Tenspeed and Brownshoe, The Greatest American Hero, The A-Team, Hunter, 21 Jump Street, Silk Stalkings, and The Commish.

2016–President Rodrigo Duterte likens himself to Adolf Hitler, saying he would "be happy" to kill three million drug users and dealers in the Philippines. The statement is met with outrage among Jewish communities in the United States.

2016–The European Space Agency's Rosetta space probe ends its 12-year mission studying comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko with a "collision maneuver" into the comet's surface.

2016–France conducts airstrikes against ISIL positions in Iraq from the French aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle.

PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Johann Guttenberg’s Bible; Britain's first tram; Truman Capote; James Dean; The Beatles by Hunter Davies; Roy Orbison's Black & White Night; Jule Styne; and Stephen J. Cannell.

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