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1996–It is announced that Julian Lennon is the anonymous buyer of Paul McCartney’s handwritten recording notes for the song, Hey Jude, for £25,000 ($39,030). The song was written by McCartney for the young Julian when the boy’s father, John Lennon, separated from his mother, Cynthia, in 1968.

BC 522–Darius I of Persia kills the Magian usurper, Gaumata, securing his hold as king of the Persian Empire.

BC 61–Pompey the Great celebrates his third triumph, on his 45th birthday, for victories over the pirates and the end of the Mithridatic Wars.

855–Roman Emperor, Lothair I, dies in Prüm, Westeifel (Rhineland-Palatinate), Germany, at age 60.

929–Chinese King, Qian Chu, is born in Hang Prefecture, Wuyue, China. In 978, he surrendered his kingdom to the Song dynasty.

1227–Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, is excommunicated by Pope Gregory IX for his failure to participate in the Crusades.

1240–Margaret of England, Queen consort of Scots, is born at Windsor Castle in Berkshire, England.

1276–Christopher II of Denmark is born. His name is connected with national disaster, as his rule ended in an almost total dissolution of the Danish state.

1328–Joan of Kent is born at Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire, England.

1360–Joanna I, of Auvergne, Queen of France, dies in France, at age 34. She was Queen of France by her marriage to King John II. She inherited the counties of Auvergne and Boulogne after the death of her father.

1364–English forces defeat the French in Brittany at the end of the War of the Breton Succession.

1402–Ferdinand the Holy Prince of Portugal is born Santarém, Portugal. He was the youngest of the "Illustrious Generation" of 15th-century Portuguese princes of the House of Aviz and lay administrator of the Knightly Order of Aviz.

1547–Miguel de Cervantes is born Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra in Alcalá de Henares, Spain. His major work, Don Quixote, considered to be the first modern European novel, is a classic of Western literature, and is regarded amongst the best works of fiction ever written.

1548–William V, Duke of Bavaria, is born at Trausnitz Castle in Landshut, Bavaria, Germany. He abdicated on October 15, 1597, in favour of his son, Maximilian I, and retired into a monastery where he spent the remainder of his life in contemplation and prayer.

1560–Gustav I of Sweden dies in Tre Kronor, Stockholm, Sweden, at age 64.

1578–Tegucigalpa, capital city of Honduras, is claimed by the Spaniards.

1650–Henry Robinson opens his Office of Addresses and Encounters in Threadneedle Street, London, England.

1717–An earthquake strikes Antigua Guatemala, destroying much of the city's architecture and making authorities consider moving the capital to a different city.

1789–The U.S. Department of War establishes a regular army with a strength of several hundred men.

1789–The first United States Congress adjourns.

1829–The Metropolitan Police of London, England (later also known as the Met), is founded.

1829–Scotland Yard is established in London, England.

1833–Ferdinand VII of Spain dies in Madrid, Spain, at age 48. Under his rule, Spain lost nearly all of its American possessions, and the country entered into civil war on his death.

1838–Architect, Henry Hobson Richardson, is born at Priestly Plantation in St. James Parish, Louisiana. He developed an architectural style that became so popular it was named Richardsonian Romanesque. An excellent example of the style can be seen in Trinity Church in Boston, Massachusetts.

1848–A stalemate takes place between Hungarian and Croatian forces at Pákozd, in the first battle of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848.

1850–The papal bull Universalis Ecclesiae restores the Roman Catholic hierarchy in England and Wales.

1864–The Treaty of Lisbon defines the boundaries between Spain and Portugal and abolishes the Couto Misto microstate.

1885–The world’s first practical, public electric tramway is opened in Blackpool, England.

1890–Businessman, William (Richard) Wilkerson, is born in Nashville, Tennessee. He founded The Hollywood Reporter and the Flamingo Hotel in Las Vegas, Nevada. He also owned the nightclub Ciro’s (present-day The Comedy Store) in West Hollywood, California. And he discovered actress, Lana Turner.

1902–Novelist, Emile Zola, dies in his sleep from inhaling smoke caused by a clogged chimney in Paris, France, at age 62. He was the most well-known practitioner of the literary school of naturalism and an important contributor to the development of theatrical naturalism.

1899–The Malolos Congress ratifies the Philippine Declaration of Independence from Spain.

1902–Novelist, Emile Zola dies in his sleep from inhaling smoke caused by a clogged chimney in Paris, France, at age 62. He was the most well-known practitioner of the literary school of naturalism and an important contributor to the development of theatrical naturalism.

1904–Actress, Greer Garson, is born Eileen Evelyn Greer Garson in Manor Park, East Ham, Essex, England. She appeared in the films Goodbye Mr. Chips, Pride and Prejudice, Mrs. Miniver, Random Harvest, Madame Curie, Mrs. Parkington, That Forsyte Woman, Sunrise at Campobello, The Singing Nun, and The Happiest Millionaire.

1907–The cornerstone is laid at Washington National Cathedral in the U.S. capital.

1907–Singing cowboy, Gene Autry, is born Orvon Grover Autry in Tioga, Texas. He was a performer who gained fame as a singing cowboy on the radio, in movies, and on television for more than three decades beginning in the early 1930s. From 1934 to 1953, Autry appeared in 93 films and 91 episodes of The Gene Autry Show TV series. In addition to his signature song, Back in the Saddle Again, Autry is still remembered for his Christmas holiday songs Here Comes Santa Claus, Frosty the Snowman, and Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer.

1909–Paul McCartney’s mother, Mary McCartney, is born Mary Patricia Mohan in Liverpool, England.

1910–Landscape painter and printmaker, Winslow Homer, dies in his studio in Prouts Neck, Maine, at age 74. The painting he was working on, entitled Shooting the Rapids, Saguenay River, remains unfinished. His Prouts Neck studio is now a National Historic Landmark, and is owned by the Portland Museum of Art.

1911–Italy declares war on the Ottoman Empire.

1912–Film director, Michelangelo Antonioni, is born in Ferrara, Emilia Romagna, Italy. Best known for his "trilogy on modernity and its discontents": L'Avventura, La Notte, and L'Eclisse, as well as the English-language, Blowup, Antonioni "redefined the concept of narrative cinema" and challenged traditional approaches to storytelling, realism, drama, and the world at large.

1913–Film director, Stanley (Earl) Kramer, is born in Manhattan, New York. Kramer was responsible for making many of Hollywood's most famous "message films." As an independent producer and director, he brought attention to topical social issues that most studios avoided. Among the subjects covered in his films were racism, nuclear war, greed, creationism vs. evolution, and the causes and effects of fascism. His films include High Noon, The Member of the Wedding, The Wild One, Not as a Stranger, The Defiant Ones, On the Beach, Inherit the Wind, Judgment at Nuremberg, It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World, Ship of Fools, Guess Who's Coming to Dinner, Bless the Beasts and Children, and Oklahoma Crude.

1916–John D. Rockefeller becomes the first billionaire.

1922–Actress, Lizabeth Scott, is born Emma Matzo in Scranton, Pennsylvania. She appeared in the films The Strange Love of Martha Ivers, Dead Reckoning, Desert Fury, The Company She Keeps, Two of a Kind, Stolen Face, Bad for Each Other, Loving You, and Pulp.

1923–The British Mandate for Palestine takes effect, creating Mandatory Palestine.

1923–The French Mandate for Syria and Lebanon takes effect.

1925–Actor, Steve Forrest, is born William Forrest Andrews in Huntsville, Texas. He appeared in the films The Bad and the Beautiful, I Love Melvin, The Band Wagon, The Long Gray Line, It Happened to Jame, Flaming Star, The Longest Day, and Mommie Dearest. His brother was actor, Dana Andrews.

1935–Rock ‘n’ roller, Jerry Lee Lewis, is born in Feriday, Concordia Parish, Louisiana. His hits include Whole Lot of Shakin' Going On, Great Balls of Fire, You Win Again, Breathless, High School Confidential, and Lewis Boogie. Country singer, Mickey Gilley, and evangelist, Jimmy Swaggart, are his cousins.

1938–The Munich Agreement between Germany, the United Kingdom, France, and Italy, settles the Sudetenland dispute in Germany's favor. The Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia are not invited.

1939–Pop songwriter, Tommy Boyce, of Boyce & Hart, is born Sidney Thomas Boyce in Charlottesville, Virginia. The duo’s hits include I Wonder What She's Doing Tonight, Alice Long (You're Still My Favorite Girlfriend), and I'm Gonna Blow You a Kiss in the Wind.

1939–Actor, Larry Linville, is born Lawrence Lavon Linville in Ojai, California. He was best known for the role of Major Frank Burns in the long-running TV series M*A*S*H.

1940–Two Avro Ansons of No. 2 Service Flying Training School RAAF collide in mid-air over Brocklesby, New South Wales, Australia. They remain locked together after colliding, and then land safely.

1941–During the Holocaust in Kiev, Soviet Union, German Einsatzgruppe C begins the Babi Yar massacre, according to the Einsatzgruppen operational situation report.

1942–Actress, Madeline Kahn, is born Madeline Gail Wolfson in Boston, Massachusetts. She appeared in the films What’s Up, Doc?, Paper Moon, Blazing Saddles, Young Frankenstein, At Long Last Love, High Anxiety, First Family, History of the World Part 1, Yellowbeard, Clue, Betsy’s Wedding, and Nixon.

1942–Fusion violinist, Jean-Luc Ponty, is born in Avranches, France.

1942–Screenwriter, Steve Tesich, is born Stojan Tesic in Uzice, Axis-occupied Yugoslavia (present-day Serbia). In 1957, he immigrated to America with his family when he was 14 years old. His work includes Breaking Away, Eyewitness, Four Friends, The World According to Garp, American Flyers, and Eleni.

1947–Jazz player, Dizzy Gillespie, appears at his first Carnegie Hall concert in New York City.

1949–The Communist Party of China writes the Common Programme for the future People's Republic of China.

1950–The telephone answering machine is created by Bell Laboratories.

1954–The convention establishing CERN (the European Organization for Nuclear Research) is signed.

1955–Child actor, Ken Weatherwax, is born Kenneth Patrick Weatherwax in Los Angeles, California He is best known for the role of Pugsley on the TV series The Addams Family. His aunt was dancer, Ruby Keeler. His uncles were Frank and Rudd Weatherwax, Lassie's trainers and owners of the first dog to play the role.

1957–Twenty MCi (740 petabecquerels) of radioactive material is released in an explosion at the Soviet Mayak nuclear plant at Chelyabinsk.

1959–The Many Loves of Dobie Gillis debuts on CBS-TV.

1960–Nikita Khrushchev, leader of the Soviet Union, disrupts a meeting of the United Nations General Assembly with a number of angry outbursts.

1963–The second period of the Second Vatican Council opens.

1963–The Everly Brothers begin a British tour with supporting acts Bo Diddley and The Rolling Stones at the New Victoria Theatre in London, England. It is The Rolling Stones' first tour of their home country.

1963–My Favorite Martian, starring Ray Walston, debuts on CBS-TV.

1963–A chart topper: Be My Baby by The Ronettes.

1967–Novelist, playwright, and poet, Carson McCullers, dies of a brain hemorrhage following a series of strokes in Nyack, New York, at age 50. McCullers had suffered from rheumatic fever as a child, which caused her to be in ill health her entire life.

1971–Oman joins the Arab League.

1972–Japan establishes diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China after breaking official ties with the Republic of China.

1973–Poet, W.H. Auden, dies of heart failure in Vienna, Austria, at age 66.

1975–WGPR in Detroit, Michigan, becomes the world's first black-owned-and-operated television station.

1976–Jerry Lee Lewis, attempting to shoot soda bottles, hits his bass player, Norman Owens, twice in the chest. Lewis was charged with shooting a firearm within the city limits.

1980–Actor, Malcolm McDowell, marries actress, Mary Steenburgen.

1987–The TV drama Thirtysomething debuts on ABC-TV.

1988–NASA launches STS-26, the return to flight mission, after the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster.

1990–Construction of the Washington National Cathedral is completed.

1990–The YF-22, which would later become the F-22 Raptor, flies for the first time.

1991–A Haitian coup d'état takes place.

1992–Brazilian President Fernando Collor de Mello is impeached.

1995–Atheist, Madalyn Murray O'Hair, dies in San Antonio, Texas, at age 76. O'Hair, her son, Jon, and her granddaughter, Robin, disappeared from Austin, Texas, and were kidnapped, murdered, and mutilated by David Roland Waters (a convicted felon out on parole) and fellow career criminals, Gary Karr and Danny Fry. Waters was an employee of the American Atheists from February 1993 to April 1994, first as a typesetter and later as office manager. O’Hair was an atheist activist and founder of American Atheists (the organization's president from 1963 to 1986). She created the first issues of American Atheist Magazine. O'Hair is best known for the Murray vs. Curlett lawsuit, which led to a landmark Supreme Court ruling in 1963, ending official Bible-reading in American public schools.

1996–It is announced that Julian Lennon is the anonymous buyer of Paul McCartney’s handwritten recording notes for the song, Hey Jude, for £25,000 ($39,030). The song was written by McCartney for the young Julian when the boy’s father, John Lennon, separated from his mother, Cynthia, in 1968.

1996–Lawyer and politician, Tom Bradley, dies after a heart attack and stroke in Los Angeles, California, at age 80. He was the 38th Mayor of Los Angeles, California, serving from 1973 to 1993. He was the only African-American mayor of that city, and his 20 years in office mark the longest tenure by any mayor in the city's history.

2004–The asteroid 4179 Toutatis passes within four lunar distances of Earth.

2004–The Burt Rutan Ansari X Prize entry, SpaceShipOne, performs a successful spaceflight, the first of two required to win the prize.

2006–Gol Transportes Aéreos Flight 1907 collides in mid-air with an Embraer Legacy 600 business jet near Peixoto de Azevedo, Mato Grosso, Brazil, killing 154 people, and triggering a Brazilian aviation crisis.

2007–Calder Hall, the world's first commercial nuclear power station, is demolished in a controlled explosion.

2008–Following the bankruptcies of Lehman Brothers and Washington Mutual, The Dow Jones Industrial Average falls 777.68 points, the largest single-day point loss in its history.

2009–An 8.0 earthquake near the Samoan Islands causes a tsunami. killing 189 people and injuring hundreds of others.

2010–Actor, Tony Curtis, dies or cardiac arrest in Henderson, Nevada, at age 85. He appeared in the films Meet Danny Wilson, Flesh and Fury, Houdini, Beachhead, Trapeze, Mister Cory, The Sweet Smell of Success, The Defiant Ones, The Perfect Furlough, Some Like It Hot, Operation Petticoat, Who Was That Lady?, The Rat Race, Spartacus, The Great Imposter, Tara Bulba, 40 Pounds of Trouble, Captain Newman, M.D., Paris When It Sizzles, Goodbye Charlie, Sex and the Single Girl, The Great Race, Boeing Boeing, Not with My Wife You Don’t, Arrivederci, Baby, Don’t Make Waves, The Boston Strangler, Lepke, Sextette, The Manitou, The Mirror Crack’d, and Insignificance.

2011–Sylvia Robinson, of Mickey & Sylvia, dies of congestive heart failure in Secaucus, New Jersey, at age 75. The duo had a big hit in the 1950s with Love Is Strange. She was alsoknown for her work as founder/CEO of the hip hop label Sugar Hill Records.

2013–Over 42 people are killed by members of Boko Haram at the College of Agriculture in Gujba, Nigeria.

2014–The Heroes & Icons channel makes its debut. The digital network primarily features reruns of classic police, action, and adventure series.

2014–A nine-pound hairball is removed from the stomach of an 18-year-old girl in Kyrgyzstan, central Asia. The girl had a habit of chewing the ends of her hair and eating strands she picked up off the carpet.

2015–Musician, Phil Woods, dies in East Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania, at age 83. He was a jazz bebop alto saxophonist, clarinetist, bandleader, and composer. His best known recorded work as a sideman is his alto sax solo on Billy Joel's Just the Way You Are. He also played the alto sax solo on Steely Dan's Doctor Wu from their album Katy Lied, as well as work on Paul Simon's album Still Crazy After All These Years.

2016–The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission warns that Samsung washing machines may explode if washing heavy load items at high speeds.

2016–A commuter train accident at the Hoboken Terminal in New Jersey kills one woman and injures 114 others. Major structural damage occurs to the station, collapsing portions of the roof.

2017–At least 22 people are killed and over 30 others are seriously injured in a rush hour stampede on a footbridge between the Parel and Prabhadevi railway stations in Mumbai, India.

PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Miguel de Cervantes; William Wilkerson; Greer Garson; Lizabeth Scott; Jean-Luc Ponty; The Many Love of Dobie Gillis; Mary Steenburgen and Malcolm McDowell; Tom Bradley; Tony Curtis; and Phil Woods.

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