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1994–Pianist, Nicky Hopkins, dies in London, England, at age 50. During the late 1960s and early 1970s, he became an in-demand session player, making appearances on albums by The Beatles, John Lennon, George Harrison, The Kinks, Rod Stewart, and even the parody rock group, Spinal Tap.

BC 3114–According to the proleptic Julian calendar, the current era in the Maya Long Count Calendar starts on this day.

394–Roman usurper, Flavius Eugenius, dies by execution after the Battle of the Frigidus inVipava Valley, Slovenia. He was a usurper in the Western Roman Empire (392-394) against Emperor Theodosius I.

926–Emperor Taizu of Liao dies in China, at age 54. He was a Khitan leader and founder of what would become the Liao Dynasty (907-926).

952–Emperor Suzaku of Japan dies in Heian Kyo, Kyoto at age 30.

972–Pope John XIII dies in Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire, at age 42.

1492–Christopher Columbus sails from La Gomera in the Canary Islands, his final port of call, before crossing the Atlantic Ocean for the first time.

1522–The Victoria, the only surviving ship of Ferdinand Magellan's expedition, returns to Sanlúcar de Barrameda in Spain, becoming the first ship to circumnavigate the world.

1620–The Pilgrims sail on the Mayflower from Plymouth, England, to settle in North America.

1628–Puritans settle Salem, which will later become part of Massachusetts Bay Colony.

1634–During the Thirty Years' War, in the Battle of Nördlingen the Catholic Imperial army defeats the Protestant armies of Sweden and Germany.

1642–The English Parliament, led by Puritans, issues an Ordinance suppressing all stage plays in theatres.

1666–Ivan V of Russia is born Ivan V Alekseyevich in Moscow, Russia. His reign was only formal, due to his serious physical and mental disabilities. At the age of 27, he was described by foreign ambassadors as senile, paralytic, and almost blind.

1766–Physicist, John Dalton, is born into a Quaker home in Eaglesfield, Cumberland, England. He was a chemist and meteorologist. Dalton is best known for his pioneering work in the development of modern atomic theory. His research into color blindness, is sometimes referred to as Daltonism, in his honor.

1782–Martha Jefferson, wife of President Thomas Jefferson, dies from childbirth complications in Charlottesville, Virginia, at age 33. She was the third First Lady of the United States. Upon her death, Thomas Jefferson was inconsolable and was led from the room almost in a state of insensibility by his sister, Mrs. Carr, who with great difficulty, got him into his library where he fainted, and remained so long insensible that they feared he would never revive. After the funeral, he withdrew to his room for three weeks. Afterward, he spent hours riding horseback alone around Monticello. Martha asked Thomas Jefferson to never marry again, and he never did.

1803–British scientist, John Dalton, begins using symbols to represent the atoms of different elements.

1839–The Cherokee Nation is formed.

1847–Henry David Thoreau leaves his sanctuary on Walden Pond to return to live in Concord, Massachusetts, for the remaining 15 years of his life.

1861–In the American Civil War, forces under Union General Ulysses S. Grant bloodlessly capture Paducah, Kentucky, giving the Union control of the Tennessee River's mouth.

1870–Louisa Ann Swain of Laramie, Wyoming, becomes the first woman in the United States to cast a vote legally after 1807.

1885–Eastern Rumelia declares its union with Bulgaria.

1888–Businessman and diplomat, Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr., is born Joseph Patrick Kennedy in Boston, Massachusetts. He was the 44th U.S. Ambassador to the United Kingdom. Kennedy was a leading member of the Democratic Party and of the Irish Catholic community. He was the patriarch of the political Kennedy dynasty. His wife was Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy. His sons were Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr., President John F. Kennedy, Senator Robert F. Kennedy, and Senator Edward “Ted” Kennedy; his daughters were Rosemary, Kathleen, Eunice, Patricia, and Jean Kennedy.

1899–Composer and songwriter, Billy Rose, is born William Samuel Rosenberg in New York, New York. He was a impresario, theatrical showman, and lyricist. His work on Broadway includes Sweet and Low, Ziegfeld Follies of 1934, Jumbo, and Carmen Jones. He was married to Broadway star, Fanny Brice.

1901–Leon Czolgosz, an unemployed anarchist, shoots and fatally wounds President William McKinley at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York.

1908–Sculptor, Korczak Ziolkowski, is born in Boston, Massachusetts. He designed the Crazy Horse Memorial in the Black Hills of South Dakota. In 1939, he assisted Gutzon Borglum in the carving of the Mt. Rushmore Memorial, also in the Black Hills.

1909–Film director, Michael Gordon, is born Irving Kunin Gordon in Baltimore, Maryland. He was a member of the Group Theatre and was blacklisted as a Communist in the McCarthy era. His films include Cyrano de Bergerac, I Can Get It for You Wholesale, Pillow Talk, Portrait in Black, Boys' Night Out, Move Over Darling, For Love or Money, and Texas Across the River.

1911–Charles Deutsch, French aerodynamics engineer and automobile maker, is born in Champigny-sur-Marne, France. He was co-founder of the brand DB. Deutsch served as President of the Société des ingénieurs de l'automobile from 1971 until 1975, followed by holding the presidency of FISITA, the International Federation of Automotive Engineering Societies. He was also the director of the 24 Hours of Le Mans, and of the Grand Prix of Monaco.

1916–The first self-service grocery store, Piggly Wiggly, opens in Memphis, Tennessee.

1921–Inventor, Norman Joseph Woodland, is born in Atlantic City, New Jersey. He was co-creator of the barcode, for which he received a patent in October 1952. This would later become the Universal Product Code (UPC). The first item scanned was a packet of chewing gum in an Ohio supermarket in 1974.

1923–Peter II of Yugoslavia is born in Belgrade, Yugoslavia. He was the last King of Yugoslavia and the last reigning member of the Karadordevic Dynasty, founded early in the 19th century. His godmother was Queen Elizabeth of England.

1924–Archduchess Marie Valerie of Austria dies of lymphoma in Vienna, Empire of Austria, at age 56.

1925–Musician, Jimmy Reed, is born in Dunleith, Mississippi. His blues compositions, Bright Lights, Big City and Baby, What Do You Want Me to Do, have become an essential part of the standard blues repertoire.

1926–Prince Claus of the Netherlands is born Claus George Willem Otto Frederik Geert van Amsberg in Hitzacker, Germany.

1928–Writer and philosopher, Robert (Maynard) Pirsig, is born in Minneapolis, Minnesota. He is best known for the book Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance, which 120 editors turned down before one finally offered a standard $3,000 advance. The book is about the 1968 motorcycle trip he made from Minneapolis to San Francisco, California, with his 12-year-old son, Christopher. The book serves as an exploration of the underlying metaphysics of western culture.

1930–Democratically elected Argentine President, Hipólito Yrigoyen, is deposed in a military coup.

1930–Game designer, Charles Foley, is born in Lafayette, Indiana. He was co-creator of Twister. He received only 2.5% royalties for three years from Milton Bradley, which amounted to about $27,000. The game became a nationwide sensation in 1966, and Hasbro later took over the manufacturing of the game. Foley invented dozens of other toys and games, and had 97 patented inventions.

1937–Comic performer, Jo Anne Worley, is born in Lowell, Indiana. She is best known as a cast member of the TV comedy show Rowan and Martin’s Laugh-In. She also appeared on dozens of other TV shows, including The Many Loves of Dovie Gillis, The Six Million Dollar Man, Hawaii Five-O, Mad About You, Boy Meets World, and The Middle.

1939–South Africa declares war on Nazi Germany.

1939–Singer-songwriter, David Allan Coe, is born in Akron, Ohio. His musical style derives from blues, rock, and country music traditions. Coe’s best-known compositions are Would You Lay With Me (In a Field of Stone) and Take This Job and Shove It.

1940–King Carol II of Romania abdicates and is succeeded by his son, Michael.

1942–Sex symbol-actress, Carol Wayne, is born in Chicago, Illinois. Before coming to Hollywood, she was a showgirl at the Folies Bergère at the Tropicana Resort & Casino in Las Vegas. Wayne was seen from time to time as Johnny Carson's “Teatime Movie Hostess” on The Tonight Show. She appeared in the films The Party, Scavenger Hunt, Savannah Smiles, Surf II, and Heartbreakers. She was married to television and film producer, Burt Sugarman.

1943–The Monterrey Institute of Technology, one of the largest and most influential private universities in Latin America, is founded in Monterrey, Mexico.

1943–Pennsylvania Railroad's premier train derails at Frankford Junction in Philadelphia, killing 79 people and injuring 117 others.

1943–Roger Waters, of the psychedelic-rock band Pink Floyd, is born in Surrey, London, England. Even though he was the band's creative force, it maintained its commercial success after a bitter split from him in the mid-1980s.

1944–During World War II, Ypres, Belgium is liberated by Allied forces and Soviet forces capture the city of Tartu, Estonia.

1944–Actress, Swoosie Kurtz, is born in Omaha, Nebraska. She appeared in the films Slap Shot, First Love, Oliver’s Story, The World According to Garp, Against All Odds, Wildcats, True Stories, Baja Oklahoma, Dangerous Liaisons, Stanley & Iris, Reality Bites, and Bubble Boy.

1946–U.S. Secretary of State, James F. Byrnes, announces that the United States will follow a policy of economic reconstruction in postwar Germany.

1946–Louis Armstrong and His Hot Seven record Blues for Yesterday and Blues in the South for RCA Victor.

1946–Arthur “Big Boy” Crudup records That's All Right (Mama) for RCA Victor.

1947–Actress, Jane (Therese) Curtin, is born in Cambridge, Massachusetts. She is best known as one of the original cast members of the TV series Saturday Night Live. She also starred in the TV sitcoms Kate & Allie and 3rd Rock from the Sun. She appeared in the films How to Beat the High Co$t of Living, Coneheads, Geraldine's Fortune, and The Shaggy Dog. Her cousin is actress, Valerie Curtin.

1948–Juliana becomes Queen of the Netherlands.

1949–Allied military authorities relinquish control of former Nazi Germany assets back to German control.

1952–A prototype aircraft crashes at the Farnborough Airshow in Hampshire, England, killing 29 spectators and the two people on board.

1954–Businesswoman and politician, Carly Fiorina, is born Cara Carleton Sneed in Austin, Texas. She is a former business CEO and a Republican politician, who was a candidate in the 2016 U.S. Presidential election. As chief executive officer of Hewlett-Packard (HP) from 1999 to 2005, she was the first woman to lead a top-20 company as ranked by Fortune magazine.

1955–Istanbul's Greek, Jewish, and Armenian minority are the target of a government-sponsored pogrom. Dozens of people die in the ensuing riots.

1956–Little Richard records the single Rip It Up.

1958–Comedian, Jeff Foxworthy, is born Jeffrey Marshall Foxworthy in Atlanta, Georgia. Known for his "You might be a redneck" one-liners, Foxworthy released six major-label comedy albums. He also starred in the TV sitcom The Jeff Foxworthy Show.

1959–The first Barbie doll is sold by the Mattel Toy Corporation.

1959–Actor, Edmund Gwenn, dies of pneumonia in Woodland Hills, California, at age 81. He is best known for the role of Kris Kringle in the film Miracle on 34th Street. He appeared in the films Anthony Adverse, A Yank at Oxford, Pride and Prejudice, Foreign Correspondent, The Devil and Miss Jones, Lassie Come Home, Of Human Bondage, Apartment for Peggy, Les Misérables, The Bigamist, Them!, and The Trouble with Harry.

1961–Twenty-year-old Bob Dylan debuts at the Gaslight Cafe in New York City.

1962–The United States government begins the Exercise Spade Fork nuclear readiness drill.

1962–Archaeologist, Peter Marsden, discovers the first of the Blackfriars Ships dating back to the second century AD, in the Blackfriars area of the banks of the River Thames in London, England.

1962–Politician, Chris Christie, is born Christopher James Christie in Newark, New Jersey. He was the 55th Governor of New Jersey. On June 30, 2015, Christie announced his candidacy for the Republican nomination in the 2016 Presidential election.

1963–The Centre for International Industrial Property Studies (CEIPI) is founded.

1964–The Beatles, on tour in America, perform two shows at Olympia Stadium in Detroit, Michigan.

1964–A chart topper: Bread and Butter by the Newbeats.

1964–Actress, Rosie Perez, is born Rosa Maria Perez in Bushwick, Brooklyn, New York. She appeared in the films Do the Right Thing, Night on Earth, White Men Can’t Jump, Untamed Heart, Fearless, It Could Happen to You, and Riding in Cars with Boys.

1965–India retaliates following Pakistan's Operation Grand Slam, which results in the Indo-Pakistani War.

1966–The architect of Apartheid, Prime Minister Dr. Hendrik Verwoerd, is stabbed to death during a parliamentary meeting in Cape Town, South Africa.

1966–The sci-fi TV series Star Trek debuts on NBC-TV.

1966–Margaret Sanger, nurse, educator, and activist, dies of congestive heart failure in Tucson, Arizona, at age 86. She popularized the term "birth control," opened the first birth control clinic in America, and established organizations that evolved into the Planned Parenthood Federation of America.

1967–The British government places advertisements in its daily newspapers explaining why it has outlawed offshore radio broadcasters. Apparently the stations broadcast on signals shared by ship-to-shore transmitters; it has nothing to do with keeping a stranglehold on the nation’s media.

1967–William DuVall, of Alice in Chains, is born in Atlanta, Georgia. He replaced the band’s original vocalist, Layne Staley, who died in 2002.

1968–Swaziland becomes independent.

1968–The Doors begin their European tour with two shows at the Roundhouse in London, England.

1968–Paddy Boom, of Scissor Sisters, is born Patrick Seacor in Singapore, Southeast Asia.

1968–Eric Clapton records his guitar solo for The Beatles’ song While My Guitar Gently Weeps. He was one a few musicians to work in the recording studio with The Beatles.

1969–The Doors play The Toronto Rock 'n' Roll Revival ar Varsity Arena in Toronto, Canada.

1969–Singer, Macy Gray, is born Natalie Renee McIntyre in Canton, Ohio. She is known for her distinctive raspy voice, and a singing style heavily influenced by Billie Holiday.

1970–Two passenger jets bound from Europe to New York are simultaneously hijacked by Palestinian terrorist members of the PFLP and taken to Dawson's Field in Jordan.

1971–Dolores O'Riordan, of The Cranberries, is born Dolores Mary Eileen O'Riordan in Limerick, Ireland. She has been appearing as a judge on RTE's The Voice of Ireland since the fall of 2013.

1972–Nine Israel athletes, taken hostage at the Munich Olympic Games by the Palestinian "Black September" terrorist group, die (along with a German policeman) at the hands of the kidnappers during a failed rescue attempt.

1972–Model and actor, Dylan Bruno, is born in Milford, Connecticut. He started his acting career while modeling for Calvin Klein. He is best known for the role of agent Colby Granger on the TV series Numb3rs. He appeared in the films Saving Private Ryan, When Tumpets Fade, Where the Heart Is, and Grand Theft Parsons.

1974–Nina (Elisabet) Persson, of The Cardigans, is born in Örebro, Närke, Sweden.

1976–Soviet Air Force pilot, Lieutenant Viktor Belenko, lands a Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-25 jet fighter on the island of Hokkaido, Japan, and requests political asylum in the United States. His request is granted.

1978–Businessman, Adolf Dassler, dies in Herzogenaurach, West Germany, at age 77. He was the founder of the German sportswear company, Adidas.

1978–Record producer, Tom Wilson, dies in Los Angeles, California. He produced records by Bob Dylan (Highway 61 Revisited), the Velvet Underground (Velvet Underground & Nico), and Frank Zappa (Freak Out!).

1983–The Soviet Union admits to shooting down Korean Air Lines Flight 007, stating that the pilots did not know it was a civilian aircraft when it violated Soviet airspace.

1984–Country singer, Ernest Tubb, dies of emphysema in Nashville, Tennessee, at age 70. He was one of the pioneers of country music. His hits include Walking the Floor Over You, I’ll Step Aside, I Love You Because, (Remember Me) I’m the One Who Loves You, The Yellow Rose of Texas, and What Am I Living For. The Ernest Tubb Record Store, founded in 1947, is still in operation in Nashville.

1985–Midwest Express Airlines Flight 105, a Douglas DC-9, crashes just after takeoff from Milwaukee, Wisconsin, killing 31 people.

1986–In Istanbul, two terrorists from Abu Nidal's organization kill 22 people and wound six others inside the Neve Shalom Synagogue during Shabbat services.

1989–At the MTV Video Music Awards, the Best Video goes to Neil Young's This Note's for You, despite the fact that the channel had originally refused to air the video because of the jabs it took at commercial sponsorship.

1990–Singer-songwriter, Matt (Brendan) McAndrew, is born in Barnegat Light, New Jersey. He is best known for his appearance in Season 7 of NBC's reality TV singing competition, The Voice, where he finished as the runner-up as part of Team Adam. He performed his original song, Wasted Love, on the show, which became a hit on the Billboard “Hot 100” chart.

1990–Tom Fogerty, of Creedence Clearwater Revival, dies of tuberculosis in Scottsdale, Arizona, at age 48.

1991–The Soviet Union recognizes the independence of the Baltic states Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.

1991–The name Saint Petersburg is restored to Russia's second largest city, which had been known as Leningrad since 1924.

1992–Hunters discover the emaciated body of Christopher McCandless at his camp 20 miles west of the town of Healy, Alaska. He had ventured into the Alaskan wilderness in April 1992, with little food and equipment, hoping to live simply for a time in solitude. His death occurred in a converted bus used as a backcountry shelter, along the Stampede Trail on the eastern bank of the Sushana River.

1992–Henry Ephron, playwright, screenwriter, and producer, dies of natural causes in Los Angeles, California, at age 81. His works (with his wife, Phoebe Ephron) include Belles on Their Toes, Daddy Long Legs, Carousel, Desk Set, Take Her She’s Mine, and There’s No Business Like Show Business.

1994–Writer, James Clavell, dies of cancer in Vevey, Switzerland, at age 72. He was an Australian-born British (later naturalized American) novelist, screenwriter, director, and World War II veteran and prisoner of war. Clavell is best known for his epic Asian Saga series of novels: King Rat, Tai-Pan, Shogun, Noble House, Whirlwind, and Gai-Jin. His screenplays include The Fly, The Great Escape, The Satan Bug, and To Sir, with Love.

1994–Pianist, Nicky Hopkins, dies from intestinal surgery related to his lifelong battle with Crohn's disease in London, England, at age 50. At the time of his death, he was working on his autobiography with writer, Ray Coleman. After Ray Coleman's death, Julian Dawson wrote a definitive biography of Hopkins: And on Piano... Nicky Hopkins. During the late 1960s and early 1970s, he became an in-demand session player, making appearances on albums by The Beatles, John Lennon, George Harrison, The Kinks, Rod Stewart, and even the parody rock group, Spinal Tap.

1995–Cal Ripken, Jr., of the Baltimore Orioles, plays in his 2,131st consecutive game, breaking a record that had stood for 56 years.

1997–The Funeral of Diana, Princess of Wales, takes place in London, England. Well over a million people lined the streets and 2.5 billion watched around the world on television.

1998–Film director, Akira Kurosawa, dies of a stroke in Setagaya, Tokyo, Japan, at age 88. Regarded as one of the most important and influential filmmakers in the history of cinema, Kurosawa directed 30 films in a career spanning 57 years. His films include Rashomon, The Seven Samurai, Ran, Rhapsody in August, and The Idiot.

2006–Prince Hisahito of Akishino is born in Tokyo, Japan. He is third in line to become Emperor of Japan.

2007–Israel executes an air strike to destroy a nuclear reactor in Syria.

2007–Operatic tenor, Luciano Pavarotti, dies of pancreatic cancer in Modena, Italy, at age 71. He was one of the most commercially successful tenors of all time.

2009–The ro-ro ferry, SuperFerry 9, sinks off the Zamboanga Peninsula in the Philippines with 971 persons aboard. All but ten people are rescued.

2012–Sixty-one people die and 48 others are injured after a fishing boat capsizes off the Izmir Province coast of Turkey, near the Greek Aegean islands.

2015–Actor, Martin Milner, dies of heart failure in Carlsbad, California, at age 83. He his best known for his starring roles in the TV shows Route 66 and Adam-12. He appeared in the films Life with Father, Sands of Iwo Jima, Halls of Montezuma, Belles on Their Toes, Springfield Rifle, Dial M for Murder, Mister Roberts, Pete Kelly's Blues, Francis in the Navy, Sweet Smell of Success, Desk Set, Gunfight at the O.K. Corral, Too Much, Too Soon, Marjorie Morningstar, Compulsion, 13 Ghosts, Sex Kittens Go to College, and Valley of the Dolls.

2016–Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte declares a "state of emergency" in the entire country.

2016–The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) publishes an article urging lone wolf terrorists to commit genocide against Australia.

2016–Barack Obama pledges $90 million to clear Laos of unexploded explosives dropped by the United States during the Vietnam War.

2016–The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) bans burqas in northern Iraq after a series of fatal attacks on its members by veiled women.

2016–The giant panda is removed from IUCN's endangered species list and is replaced by the Eastern gorilla.

2016–Warner Brothers is accused of self-censorship after it tagged its own websites for copyright infringement through the Google search engine.

2016–21st Century Fox, the parent company of Fox News, settles a sexual harassment case brought by Gretchen Carlson for $20 million.

2016–Washington-based lawyer and Fox News On The Record host, Greta Van Susteren, leaves the channel after 14 years.

2017–Hurricane Irma makes first landfall on Barbuda, Saint Martin, and Anguilla in the northeastern Leeward Islands. At least two people are killed and two others seriously injured on the islands of St. Barts and St. Martin, as heavy rain and Category 5 winds hit the Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico’s northeast coast. Irma has maintained 185 mph winds for 24 hours, setting a record for Atlantic and eastern Pacific storms.

PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Flavius Eugenius; Ivan V of Russia; seal of The Cherokee Nation; Billy Rose; Universal Product Code (UPC); Twister game; Carol Wayne; Swoosie Kurtz. Jane Curtin; the first Barbie doll; The Beatles performing at Olympia Stadium in Detroit, Michigan; Margaret Sanger; Eric Clapton; Dylan Bruno; Ernest Tubb; Creedence Clearwater Revival; James Clavell; Akira Kurosawa; and Martin Milner.

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