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1997–Neurologist and psychiatrist, Viktor Frankl, dies of heart failure in Vienna, Austria, at age 92. A Holocaust survivor, Frankl was the founder of logotherapy, which is a form of existential analysis, the "Third Viennese School of Psychotherapy." His best-selling book, Man's Search for Meaning, chronicles his experiences as a concentration camp inmate, which led him to discover the importance of finding meaning in all forms of existence, even the most brutal ones, and thus, a reason to continue living.



BC 44–Pharaoh Cleopatra VII of Egypt declares her son co-ruler as Ptolemy XV Caesarion.

BC 44–Cicero launches the first of his Philippics (oratorical attacks) on Mark Antony. He will make 14 of them over the following months.

BC 31–The Battle of Actium, off the western coast of Greece, forces of Octavian defeat troops under Mark Antony and Cleopatra.

421–Galla Placidia, wife of the Emperor Constantius III, becomes a widow for the second time when he dies suddenly of an illness.

595–Patriarch John IV of Constantinople dies in Constantinople, the capital city of the Roman and Byzantine, the Latin, and the Ottoman empires.

1192–The Treaty of Jaffa is signed between Richard I of England and Saladin, leading to the end of the Third Crusade.

1332–Jayaatu Khan, Emperor Wenzong of Yuan, dies in China. Apart from Emperor of China, he is regarded as the 12th Great Khan of the Mongol Empire or Mongols.

1540–Dawit II of Ethiopia dies in battle near Debre Damo, in northern Ethiopia, at age 38.

1649–The Italian city of Castro is completely destroyed by the forces of Pope Innocent X, ending the Wars of Castro.

1666–The Great Fire of London breaks out, claiming thousands of homes, but only a few lives. The fire began in a bakery on Pudding Lane. It raged for four days and 80% of the city was destroyed.

1752–Great Britain adopts the Gregorian calendar, nearly two centuries later than most of Western Europe.

1753–Marie Joséphine Louise of Savoy is born at the Royal Palace of Turin in Turin, Italy. She was the wife of the future King Louis XVIII of France. She was a princess of Savoy by birth, became Countess of Provence upon her marriage in 1771, and then titular Queen of the French, when her husband's nephew, the titular King Louis XVII of France, died in 1795.

1778–French-Dutch King, Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, is born Luigi Buonaparte in Ajaccio, Corsica. His brother was the first Emperor of the French, Napoleon I, and his son was the last, Napoleon III.

1789–The United States Department of the Treasury is founded.

1792–During what became known as the September Massacres of the French Revolution, rampaging mobs slaughter three Roman Catholic Church bishops, more than 200 priests, and prisoners who are believed to be royalist sympathizers.

1806–A massive landslide destroys the town of Goldau, Switzerland, killing 457 people.

1807–The Royal Navy bombards Copenhagen with fire bombs and phosphorus rockets to prevent Denmark from surrendering its fleet to Napoleon.

1811–The University of Oslo is founded as The Royal Fredericks University, after Frederick VI of Denmark and Norway.

1820–Emperor Jiaqing of China dies at the Chengde summer palace in present-day Hebei.

1833–Oberlin College is founded in Oberlin, Ohio, by John Jay Shipherd and Philo P. Stewart.

1838–Liliuokalani of Hawaii is born Lydia Lili’u Loloku Walania Wewehi Kamaka’eha in Honolulu, Oahu, Kingdom of Hawaii. She was the last monarch and only Queen Regnant of the Kingdom of Hawaii.

1850–Baseball player and mamager, Albert (Goodwill) Spalding, is born in Byron, Illinois. He co-founded the Spalding Sporting Goods Company. He played major league baseball between 1871 and 1878. In 1877, he became the first well-known player to use a fielding glove, and such gloves were among the items sold at his sporting goods store. After his retirement as a player, Spalding remained active with the Chicago White Stockings as President and part owner. In the 1880s, he took players on the first world tour of baseball. With William Hulbert, Spalding organized the National League. He also wrote the first set of official baseball rules.

1856–The Tianjing Incident takes place in Nanjing, China. This is a major internal conflict within the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, which took place in its capital city, Tianjing. A few key leaders of the Taiping Rebellion are killed; the East King Yang Xiuqing, the North King Wei Changhui, and the Yan King Qin Rigang. More than 27,000 other civilians and troops perish in the conflict.

1859–A solar super storm affects electrical telegraph service.

1864–Union forces enter Atlanta, Georgia, a day after the Confederate defenders flee the city, ending the Atlanta Campaign.

1867–Mutsuhito, Emperor Meiji of Japan, marries Masako Ichijo. The Empress consort is thereafter known as Lady Haruko. Since her death in 1914, she is called by the name Empress Shoken.

1870–In the Battle of Sedan, Prussian forces take Napoleon III of France and 100,000 of his soldiers prisoner.

1884–Missionary and mystic, Frank (Charles) Laubach, is born in Benton, Pennsylvania. While working among Muslims at a remote location in the Philippines, he developed the "Each One Teach One" literacy program. It has been used to teach about 60 million people to read in their own language. A a collection of his letters was published under the title Letters by a Modern Mystic.

1885–In Rock Springs, Wyoming, 150 white miners, who are struggling to unionize so they could strike for better wages and work conditions, attack their Chinese fellow workers killing 28, wounding 15, and forcing several hundred more out of town.

1898–British and Egyptian troops defeat Sudanese tribesmen and establish British dominance in Sudan.

1898–Religious leader, Wilford Woodruff, dies in San Francisco, California, at age 91. He was the fourth President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.

1901–Vice President Theodore Roosevelt utters the famous phrase, "Speak softly and carry a big stick," at the Minnesota State Fair.

1902–A Trip To The Moon, the first science fiction film, is released.

1910–Post-Impressionist Naive painter, Henri Rousseau, dies in Paris, France, at age 66. He is best Known for his fantastical and lush portrayals of animals in the forest.

1912–Arthur Rose Eldred is awarded the first Eagle Scout award of the Boy Scouts of America.

1917–Writer and critic, Cleveland Amory, is born in Nahant, Massachusetts. From the 1950s through the 1990s, he had a long career as a reporter and writer for national magazines, and as a television and radio commentator. Amory is also known for his work on behalf of animal rights, particularly protection of animals from hunting and vivisection: the executive director of the Humane Society of the United States described Amory as "the founding father of the modern animal protection movement."

1918–Novelist, Allen (Stuart) Drury, is born in Houston, Texas. He was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for fiction in 1960, for his novel Advise and Consent, which spent 102 weeks on The New York Times Best Seller List. Drury penned five sequels to Advise and Consent before starting what would be another series on journalism. He wrote a total of 20 novels in his lifetime.

1919–The Communist Party of America is organized in Chicago, Illinois.

1919–Dancer and choreographer, Marge Champion, is born Marjorie Celeste Belcher in Los Angeles, California. At a young age she was hired as a dance model for Walt Disney Studios animated films. Later, she performed as an actress and dancer in movie musicals. She appeared in the films Honor of the West, All Women Have Secrets, Show Boat, Lovely to Look At, Everything I Have Is Yours, Give a Girl a Break, Jupiter’s Darling, Three for the Show, The Party, and The Swimmer. She was married to dancer and choreographer, Gower Champion.

1924–Politician, Daniel arap Moi, is born in Sacho, Baringo, Kenya Colony. He was the second President of Kenya.

1925–Orchestra leader and composer, Hugo (Mario) Montenegro, is born in New York, New York. His best known work is derived from interpretations of the music from Spaghetti Westerns, especially his cover version of the main theme from the 1966 film The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly. Among the films he scored are Hurry Sundown, Lady in Cement, The Undefeated, Viva Max!, The Ambushers, The Wrecking Crew, and Charo!

1927–Sophie Tucker records her signature song, Some of These Days, for Columbia Records.

1929–Film director, (William) Hal Ashby, is born in Ogden, Utah. His films include The Landlord, Harold and Maude, The Last Detail, Shampoo, Bound for Glory, Coming Home, Being There, Let’s Spend the Night Together, The Slugger’s Wife, and 8 Million Ways to Die.

1929–Actor, Victor Spinetti, is born Vittorio Giorgio Andrea Spinetti in Cwm, Ebbw Vale, Wales. He is best known for the three roles he played in The Beatles’ films A Hard Day’s Night, Help!, and Magical Mystery Tour. During his later career, Spinetti acted with the Royal Shakespeare Company. He appeared in the films Expresso Bongo, The Gentle Terror, Sparrows Can’t Sing, The Wild Affair, Becket, The Taming of the Shrew, The Biggest Bundle of Them All, Start the Revolution Without Me, Under Milk Wood, Digby, the Biggest Dog in the World, The Little Prince, The Return of the Pink Panther, Voyage of the Damned, Some Like It Cool, Under the Cherry Moon, and The Krays.

1930–The first non-stop airplane flight from Europe to the United States is completed as Captain Dieudonne Coste and Maurice Bellonte of France arrive in Valley Stream, New York. It took 37 hours.

1931–Saxophonist, Clifford Jordan, is born in Chicago, Illinois. While in Chicago, he performed with Max Roach, Sonny Stitt, and other rhythm and blues groups. He moved to New York City in 1957, and recorded three albums for Blue Note.

1932–Entrepreneur, Arnold Greenberg, is born in Brooklyn, New York. In the 1970s, he co-founded Snapple, a brand of tea and juice drinks, with Hyman Golden and Leonard Marsh.

1934–Sam Gooden, of The Impressions, is born Samiel G. Gooden in Chattanooga, Tennessee.

1935–A large hurricane hits the Florida Keys killing 423 people.

1935–George Gershwin completes the orchestral score for the opera Porgy and Bess.

1937–Businessman, Peter (Victor) Ueberroth, is born in Evanston, Illinois. He served as the sixth Commissioner of Baseball from 1984 to 1989. Ueberroth became a Vice President and shareholder in Trans International Airlines at the age of 22. He has been a director of The Coca-Cola Company since 1986.

1940–Singer, Jimmy Clanton, is born in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. His hit song, Just a Dream, reached #4 on the Billboard chart and sold a million copies. He other hits include Go Jimmy Go and Venus in Blue Jeans. He starred in the rock and roll movies Go Johnny Go and Teenage Millionaire.

1941–The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences copyrights the “Oscar” statuette.

1943–Rosalind Ashford, of Martha and the Vandellas, is born in Detroit, Michigan. The vocal group had hits with Come and Get These Memories, Heat Wave, Dancing in the Street, Nowhere to Run, and Jimmy Mack.

1943–Singer, Joe Simon, is born in Simmesport, Louisiana. His hits include You Keep Me Hanging On, Drowning in the Sea of Love, and The Chokin’ Kind.

1945–Combat ends in the Pacific Theater during World War II. The Instrument of Surrender of Japan is signed by Japanese Foreign Minister, Mamoru Shigemitsu, and accepted aboard the battleship USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay.

1945–Vietnam declares its independence, forming the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.

1946–The interim government of India is formed, headed by Jawaharlal Nehru as Vice President, with the powers of a Prime Minister.

1946–Eugene O’Neill’s play The Iceman Cometh opens in New York. It is the last of his plays to be performed on Broadway during his lifetime.

1946–Keyboardist, Billy Preston, is born William Everett Preston in Houston, Texas. He got his start playing the organ on the teen music series Shindig! He was one of the few musicians to play on record with The Beatles, when he sat in on their Let It Be sessions. His hits were That's the Way God Planned It, Outa-Space, Nothing from Nothing, and Will It Go Round in Circles. And in the early 1970s, he may have had the biggest Afro on record.

1948–Football player and sportscaster, Terry (Paxton) Bradshaw, is born in Shreveport, Louisiana. He played for the Pittsburgh Steelers in the National Football League (NFL). Since 1994, he has been a TV analyst and co-host of Fox NFL Sunday. He appeared in the movies Hooper, The Cannonball Run, and Smokey and the Bandit II. He was married to ice skater, JoJo Starbuck.

1948–Educator and astronaut, Christa McAuliffe, is born Sharon Christa Corrigan in Boston, Massachusetts. She was a teacher from Concord, New Hampshire, and was one of the seven crew members killed in the Space Shuttle Challenger explosion. In 1985, she was selected from more than 11,000 applicants to participate in the NASA Teacher in Space Project and was scheduled to become the first teacher in space.

1951–Politician, Jim DeMint, is born James Warren DeMint in Greenville, South Carolina. He was a United States Senator from South Carolina from 2005 to 2013.

1951–Actor, (Thomas) Mark Harmon, is born in Burbank, California. He appeared in the films Comes a Horseman, Beyond the Poseidon Adventure, Let’s Get Harry, Summer School, The Presidio, Stealing Home, Worth Winning, Wyatt Earp, and Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas. His parents were Heisman Trophy winning-football player and broadcaster, Tom Harmon, and actress, Elyse Knox. His sister is actress, Kristin Nelson. His niece is actress, Tracy Nelson, and his nephews are musicians, Matthew and Gunner Nelson. He is married to actress, Pam Dawber.

1951–Mik Kaminski, violinist for Electric Light Orchestra, is born Michael Kaminski in Harrogate, North Yorkshire. England.

1952–Tennis player and sportscaster, Jimmy Connors, is born James Scott Connors in East St. Louis, Illinois. By virtue of his long and prolific career, Connors still holds three prominent Open Era singles records: 109 titles, 1,532 matches played, and 1,254 match wins. His titles include eight majors (five U.S. Opens, two Wimbledons, and one Australian Open), three year-end championships, and 17 Grand Prix Super Series.

1958–U.S. Air Force C-130A-II is shot down by fighters over Yerevan in Armenia, when it strays into Soviet airspace while conducting a mission. All crew members are killed.

1958–Great Britain performs an atmospheric nuclear test at Christmas Island.

1959–Businessman and poker player, Guy Laliberté, is born in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. He founded Cirque du Soleil. With an estimated net worth of $2.6 billion (as of March 2012), Laliberté was ranked by Forbes as the 11th wealthiest Canadian and 459th wealthiest man in the world.

1960–The first election of the Parliament of the Central Tibetan Administration in history of Tibet takes place.

1960–A chart topper: The Twist by Chubby Checker.

1962–Businessman, William Wilkerson, dies of a heart attack at his home in Bel Air, California, at age 71. He founded The Hollywood Reporter and the Flamingo Hotel in Las Vegas, Nevada. He also owned the nightclub Ciro’s (present-day The Comedy Store) in West Hollywood, California.

1963–The CBS Evening News becomes network television's first half-hour weeknight news broadcast in America, when the show is lengthened from 15 to 30 minutes.

1963–The Angels become the first white all-female group to have a #1 record. with My Boyfriend’s Back.

1964–The Beatles, on tour in America, perform at Convention Hall, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Days before the concert, Philadelphia had experienced race-riots. The Beatles, who are Civil Rights supporters, are shocked to see that their audience of 13,000 is completely white.

1964–Actor, Keanu (Charles) Reeves, is born in Beirut, Lebanon. His mother is English, from Essex, England; his father, an American from Hawaii, has Native Hawaiian, Chinese, English, and Portuguese ancestry. Reeves is entitled to British citizenship through his English mother and he holds Canadian citizenship by naturalization. He grew up as a Canadian and holds an American green card. He appeared in the films River’s Edge, Permanent Record, Dangerous Liaisons, Bill & Ted’s Excellent Adventure, Parenthood, I Love You to Death, Point Break, Bill & Ted’s Bogus Journey, My Own Private Idaho, Bram Stoker’s Dracula, Much Ado About Nothing, Little Buddha, Even Cowgirls Get the Blues, Speed, Johnny Mnemonic, A Walk in the Clouds, Feeling Minnesota, The Devil’s Advocate, The Matrix, The Watcher, Sweet November, Something’s Gotta Give, The Lake House, and The Day the Earth Stood Still.

1965–The Rolling Stones appear on BBC's Ready Steady Go!

1965–Boxer, Lennox Lewis, is born in Stratford, London, England. Lewis turned professional in 1989, winning his first 21 fights before he knocked out Donovan Ruddock in 1992, to take over the number one position in the World Boxing Council (WBC) rankings. He became undisputed champion when he defeated Evander Holyfield in November 1999. In 2001, he was knocked out by Hasim Rahman, but again avenged the defeat in a rematch to regain his titles. After defeating Mike Tyson by knockout in 2002, and stopping Vitali Klitschko in 2003, Lennox Lewis retired from boxing in 2004.

1966–Actress, Salma Hayek, is born Salma Hayek Jiménez in Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz, Mexico. She has appeard in the films Mi Vida Loca, Desperado, Fair Game, From Dusk Till Dawn, Fled, Fools Rush In, 54, Wild Wild West, Timecode, Traffic, and Frida.

1968–A chart topper: Born to Be Wild by Steppenwolf.

1968–After performing at a concert in Saratoga, New York, Jim Morrison stops over at the popular “Aerodrome” in Schenectady, while en route to New York City. After strolling through the audience for awhile, he sits in for a few numbers with the blues band that is playing there.

1969–North Vietnamese President, Ho Chi Minh, dies of heart failure at his home in Hanoi, North Vietnam, at age 79. News of his death was withheld from the North Vietnamese public for nearly 48 hours, because he had died on the anniversary of the founding of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.

1969–NBC-TV cancels the TV series Star Trek. The show had debuted on September 8, 1966.

1969–The first automatic teller machine in the U.S. is installed in Rockville Center, New York.

1970–NASA announces the cancellation of two Apollo missions to the Moon: Apollo 15 and Apollo 19.

1972–In New York, John Lennon and Yoko Ono appear live with Elephant’s Memory towards the end of the all-day annual Jerry Lewis Labor Day Telethon. They perform live versions of Imagine, Now or Never, and a reggae version of Give Peace a Chance.

1973–Comedian, Katt Williams, is born Micah Sierra Williams in Cincinnati, Ohio. He has appeared on the TV shows NYPD Blue, The Tracy Morgan Show, My Wife and Kids, Girlfriends, Cuts, and The Boondocks.

1973–Writer, J.R.R. Tolkien, dies in Bournemouth, Dorset, England. He is best known for the fantasy trilogy, The Lord of the Rings. He was also an academic by profession, writing literary and linguistic criticism.

1975–The Great American Music Fair takes place in Syracuse, New York. The show, featuring Jefferson Starship, New Riders of the Purple Sage, and The Doobie Brothers, is marred when a crowd of 500 attempt to crash the gate, armed with rocks and bottles, in an effort to make the festival a free one (like Woodstock). Police and state troopers arrive and 60 arrests are made.

1976–The first issue of Musician magazine is published.

1978–George Harrison marries Olivia Trinidad Arias in a secret ceremony at the Henley-on-Thames Register Office in England.

1981–The USSR performs an underground nuclear test.

1982–The house of Rolling Stone member, Keith Richard, burns down.

1984–Seven people are shot and killed and 12 others are wounded in the Milperra massacre, a shootout between the rival motorcycle gangs Bandidos and Comancheros in Sydney, Australia.

1985–Sri Lankan Tamil politicians and former MPs, M. Alalasundaram and V. Dharmalingam, are shot dead during the Sri Lankan Civil War.

1987–The trial begins for 19-year-old pilot, Mathias Rust, who flew his Cessna airplane into Red Square in Moscow, Russia.

1988–Novelist, Allen Drury, dies of cardiac arrest at St. Mary's Medical Center in San Francisco, California, at age 80. He was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for fiction in 1960, for his novel Advise and Consent, which spent 102 weeks on The New York Times Best Seller List.

1990–Transnistria is unilaterally proclaimed a Soviet republic, but Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev declares the decision null and void.

1992–An earthquake in Nicaragua kills at least 116 people.

1995–A seven-hour concert with dozens of stars, including Jerry Lee Lewis, Aretha Franklin, Bruce Springsteen, Chuck Berry, Little Richard, Martha and the Vandellas, John Mellencamp, and Bob Dylan, caps the opening of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum in Cleveland, Ohio. Called “The Concert for the Hall of Fame,” it is presented at Cleveland Municipal Stadium. It is the grand opening celebration for the $92-million, I.M. Pei-designed Hall of Fame and Museum. The museum’s official public dedication and ribbon-cutting ceremony had been held the previous day.

1997–Neurologist and psychiatrist, Viktor Frankl, dies of heart failure in Vienna, Austria, at age 92. A Holocaust survivor, Frankl was the founder of logotherapy, which is a form of existential analysis, the "Third Viennese School of Psychotherapy." His best-selling book, Man's Search for Meaning, chronicles his experiences as a concentration camp inmate, which led him to discover the importance of finding meaning in all forms of existence, even the most brutal ones, and thus, a reason to continue living.

1998–Swissair Flight 111 crashes near Peggys Cove, Nova Scotia, killing all 229 people on board.

1998–The UN's International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda finds Jean-Paul Akayesu, the former mayor of a small town in Rwanda, guilty of nine counts of genocide.

2001–Surgeon and academic, Christiaan Barnard, dies from a severe asthma attack while on vacation in Paphos, Cyprus, at age 78. He performed the world's first successful human-to-human heart transplant.

2001–Actor, Troy Donahue, dies of a heart attack in Santa Monica, California, at age 65. He appeared in the films The Monolith Monsters, Summer Love, This Happy Feeling, The Perfect Furlough, Monster on the Campus, Imitation of Life, A Summer Place, The Crowded Sky, Parrish, Susan Slade, Rome Adventure, Palm Springs Weekend, My Blood Runs Cold, Grandview, U.S.A., and Cry-Baby.

2005–Actor, Bob Denver, dies of cancer in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, at age 70. He is best known for the roles of Maynard G. Krebs on the sitcom The Many Loves of Dovie Gillis, and Gilligan on the comedy series Gilligan’s Island. He appeared in the films A Private’s Affair, Take Her, She’s Mine, For Those Who Think Young, Who’s Minding the Mint?, The Sweet Ride, and Back to the Beach.

2013–The new eastern span of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge opens to traffic in San Francisco, California, becoming the widest bridge in the world.

2015–Researchers publish the most comprehensive assessment of global tree populations ever conducted, revealing that the Earth is home to 3.04 trillion trees. They arrived at the estimate based on data collected from satellite imagery and ground-based tree density estimates from more than 400,000 locations worldwide.

2015–Actress, Tori Spelling, files a lawsuit against the restaurant chain Benihana, after suffering third-degreee burns when she accidentally placed her arm against one of the grills at the eatery in April 2015. Spelling was forced to undergo surgery and skin grafts to treat the burns.

2016–An explosion at a night market in Davao City, Philippines, kills at least 14 people and injures 60 others.

2016–President Islam Karimov of Uzbekistan dies from a stroke in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, at age 78. He had served in office for 27 years.

2016–Music manager, Jerry Heller, dies of a heart attack in Thousand Oaks, California, at age 75. He is best known for managing West Coast rap supergroup N.W.A. and gangsta rapper Eazy-E. But he rose to prominence in the 1960s and 1970s, importing Elton John and Pink Floyd for their first major American tours, and representing Journey, Marvin Gaye, Van Morrison, War, Average White Band, ELO, Eric Burdon, Crosby Stills & Nash, Ike & Tina Turner, Creedence Clearwater Revival, Otis Redding, The Who, Grand Funk Railroad, Black Sabbath, Humble Pie, Styx, REO Speedwagon, The Four Tops, Dr. John, Jose Feliciano, The Grass Roots, and The Standells, among many others.


PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Cleopatra; the city of Castro, Italy; Louis Napoleon Bonaparte; Emperor Jiaqing of China; a solar super storm; Wilford Woodruff; Cleveland Amory; Hugo Montenegro; Clifford Jordan; Jimmy Clanton; Jawaharlal Nehru; Mark Harmon; Guy Laliberté; Keanu Reeves; Born to be Wild by Steppenwolf; John Lennon and Yoko Ono on the Jerry Lewis Labor Day Telethon; George and Olivia Harrison; the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum; and Troy Donahue.

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