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1991–A group of scientists (four men and four women) begin a two-year stay inside “Biosphere 2,” a sealed structure in Oracle, Arizona. They had planned to have no contact with the outside world: to grow their own food and live peacefully together as future pioneers in a harsh and alien world. Unfortunately, the outside world had to intervene a few times: to get rid of an ant invasion, to pump in oxygen, to tend to a health emergencies, and to bring in forgotten necessities (like makeup). The scientific team managed to last out the term, but they were half-crazy and half-starved when U.S. Marshals led them out two years later.

BC 46–Julius Caesar dedicates a temple to his mythical ancestor, Venus Genetrix, in accordance with a vow he made at the Battle of Pharsalus.

715–Ragenfrid defeats Theudoald at the Battle of Compiegne.

1087–William II is crowned King of England and reigns until 1100.

1212–Golden Bull of Sicily is issued to confirm the hereditary royal title in Bohemia for the Premyslid dynasty.

1290–Margaret, Maid of Norway, Queen of Scotland, dies of the effects of sea-sickness in St, Margaret's Hope, Orkney Islands, Scotland, at age 7.

1345–Frisians defeat Holland in the Battle of Warns.

1493–Pope Alexander VI issues the papal bull Dudum siquidem to the Catholic Monarchs, extending the grant of new lands he made them in Inter caetera.

1580–Sir Francis Drake finishes his circumnavigation of the Earth.

1620–Taichang Emperor of China dies after taking a mysterious “red pill,” at age 38.

1687–The Parthenon in Athens is partially destroyed by an explosion caused by the bombing from Venetian forces led by Morosini.

1687–The city council of Amsterdam votes to support William of Orange's invasion of England, which becomes the Glorious Revolution.

1774–Johnny Appleseed is born John Chapman in Leominster, Massachusetts, British America. He was an American pioneer nurseryman who introduced apple trees to large parts of Pennsylvania, Ontario, Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, as well as the northern counties of present-day West Virginia. The popular image is of Johnny Appleseed spreading apple seeds randomly everywhere he went. In fact, he planted nurseries rather than orchards, built fences around them to protect them from livestock, left the nurseries in the care of a neighbor who sold trees on shares, and returned every year or two to tend the nursery.

1777–During the American Revolution, British troops occupy Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

1789–Thomas Jefferson is appointed the first U.S. Secretary of State, John Jay is appointed the first Chief Justice of the U.S., Samuel Osgood is appointed the first U.S. Postmaster General, and Edmund Randolph is appointed the first U.S. Attorney General.

1792–Marc-David Lasource begins accusing Maximilien Robespierre of wanting a dictatorship for France.

1810–A new Act of Succession is adopted by the Riksdag of the Estates and Jean Baptiste Bernadotte becomes heir to the Swedish throne.

1820–Hunter and explorer, Daniel Boone, dies of natural causes at Nathan Boone's house in Femme Osage Creek, Missouri, at age 85. His last words were, "I'm going now. My time has come." He was a pioneer, a woodsman, and a frontiersman, whose exploits made him one of the first folk heroes of America. Boone is most famous for his exploration and settlement of what is now the state of Kentucky.

1877–Actor, Edmund Gwenn, is born Edmund John Kellaway in Wandsworth, London, England. He is best known for the role of Kris Kringle in the film Miracle on 34th Street. He appeared in the films Anthony Adverse, A Yank at Oxford, Pride and Prejudice, Foreign Correspondent, The Devil and Miss Jones, Lassie Come Home, Of Human Bondage, Apartment for Peggy, Les Misérables, The Bigamist, Them!, and The Trouble with Harry.

1887–Emile Berliner receives a patent for his gramophone, the first of its kind to play discs.

1888–Writer, T.S. Eliot, is born Thomas Stearns Eliot in St. Louis, Missouri. He studied philosophy under George Santayana at Harvard, and was turned down by the U.S. Navy, so he went to Europe, studied in Paris, France, and at Oxford, England, and it was there he decided to stay. His poem, “The Lovesong of J. Alfred Prufrock,” was written while he was still in college. He also wrote a number of plays, the most successful of which was Murder in the Cathedral, about the martyrdom of Thomas Becket.

1889–Existentialist philosopher, Martin Heidegger, is born in Baden-Württemberg, German Empire. According to the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, he is widely acknowledged to be one of the most original and important philosophers of the 20th century. His first and best known book is Being and Time (1927).

1897–Pope Paul VI is born Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini in Concesio, Brescia, Kingdom of Italy.

1898–Composer, George Gershwin, is born Jacob Gershwine in Brooklyn, New York. Gershwin's compositions spanned both popular and classical genres, and his most popular melodies are widely known. His 1925 composition, Rhapsody in Blue, is the most famous jazz-based piece played in concert halls. He is considered the greatest American composer of the 20th century. His popular songs include Bidin' My Time, But Not for Me, Embraceable You, Fascinating Rhythm, A Foggy Day, Funny Face, He Loves and She Loves, How Long Has This Been Going On?, I Got Rhythm, I've Got a Crush on You, Love Is Here to Stay, The Man I Love, 'S Wonderful, Someone to Watch Over Me, Strike Up the Band, Summertime, Swanee, That Certain Feeling, They All Laughed, and They Can't Take That Away from Me. His brother was lyricist, Ira Gershwin.

1902–American clothing manufacturer, Levi Strauss, dies in San Francisco, California, at age 73. He founded the first company to manufacture blue jeans. His firm, Levi Strauss & Co., began in San Francisco, California, in 1853.

1907–New Zealand and Newfoundland each become dominions within the British Empire.

1909–William France, founder of NASCAR (National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing) and the Daytona 500, is born William Henry Getty France in Washington, D.C. He was also known as Bill France, Sr. or “Big Bill,” once his son, Bill France, Jr. came on the racing scene.

1910–Indian journalist, Swadeshabhimani Ramakrishna Pillai, is arrested after publishing criticism of the government of Travancore and is exiled.

1914–The U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is established by the Federal Trade Commission Act.

1916–Automat technology is patented by inventor John Fritsche, and assigned to Joseph Horn and Frank Hardart. Horn and Hardart opened their first automat in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on June 12, 1902. This was followed by their first automat in New York, opening in Times Square on July 2, 1912. Another New York City automat followed same week near Union Square. By the 1940s, more than 50 automats in Philadelphia and New York served 350,000 customers each day. Macaroni and cheese, baked beans, and creamed spinach were popular automat dishes for many years. With the advent of fast food restaurants in the 1960s, the automats began to be replaced by these newer counterparts. A 35-foot automat section from Philadelphia’s 1902 Horn & Hardart, complete with mirrors, marble, and marquetry, is on display at The Smithsonian's National Museum of American History.

1922–Nicholas (Romanovich) Romanov, Prince of Russia, is born in Antibes, France. He was a claimant to the headship of the House of Romanov and President of the Romanov Family Association. Although undoubtedly a descendant of Tsar Nicholas I of Russia, his claimed titles and official membership in the former Imperial House were disputed.

1923–Gustav Stresemann resumes the Weimar Republic's payment of reparations.

1925–Singer, Marty Robbins, is born Martin David Robinson in Glendale, Arizona. His hits include A White Sport Coat and a Pink Carnation, El Paso, and Don’t Worry.

1926–Singer and actress, Julie London, is born Gayle Peck in Santa Rosa, California. She released 32 albums of pop and jazz standards during the 1950s and 1960s. She is best known for the role of nurse Dixie McCall on the TV series Emergency! She was married to actors Jack Webb and Bobby Troupe.

1927–Physician and academic, (James) Robert Cade, is born in San Antonio, Texas. He was co-inventor of the sports drink, Gatorade. Gatorade would have significant medical applications for treating dehydration in patients, and has generated over $150 million in royalties for the University of Florida (where it was developed).

1927–Actor, Patrick (Wisdom) O'Neal, is born in Ocala, Florida. He appeared in the films From the Terrace, The Cardinal, In Harm’s Way, King Rat, A Fine Madness, Alvarez Kelly, Chamber of Horrors, Assignment to Kill, Where Were You When the Lights Went Out?, The Secret Life of an American Wife, Silent Night Bloody Night, The Way We Were, The Stepford Wives, New York Stories, Q & A, Alice, For the Boys, and Under Siege.

1931–George Chambers, bass player with The Chambers Brothers, is born in Flora, Mississippi.

1933–As gangster, Machine Gun Kelly, surrenders to the FBI, he shouts out, "Don't shoot, G-Men!", which becomes a nickname for FBI agents.

1934–The British oceanliner, The Queen Mary, is launched.

1937–Film producer, Jerry Weintraub, is born Jerome Charles Weintraub in Brooklyn, New York. He began his career as a talent agent, having managed relatively unknown singer John Denver in 1970. He has been credited with making "show business history" by being the first to organize and manage large arena concert tours for singers. Among the performers whose tours he managed are Elvis Presley, Frank Sinatra, Neil Diamond, Bob Dylan, and Led Zeppelin. Following his years as a concert promoter, he began producing films. His films include Nashville, Oh, God!, Cruising, Diner, The Karate Kid, The Avengers, and Ocean’s Eleven.

1937–Blues singer, Bessie Smith, dies after a car crash in Clarkdale, Mississippi, at age 43. She is known, among other things, for the 1929 tune Nobody Knows You When You're Down and Out.

1941–Joe Bauer, drummer for The Youngbloods, is born in Memphis, Tennessee.

1942–August Frank, a higher official of the SS concentration camp administration department, issues a memorandum containing a great deal of operational detail in how Jews should be "evacuated."

1944–During World War II, on the central front of the Gothic Line Brazilian troops control the Serchio Valley region after 10 days of fighting.

1945–Bryan Ferry, of Roxy Music, is born in Washington, County Durham, England. He began his solo career in 1973. His solo hits include A Hard Rain's a-Gonna Fall, Let's Stick Together, and This Is Tomorrow. Ferry has sold over 30 million albums worldwide.

1945–Composer, Bela Bartok, dies from complications of leukemia in New York, New York, at age 64. His funeral was attended by only 10 people. He was the composer of many orchestral and piano works, and the opera Bluebeard's Castle.

1947–Country singer, Lynn (Rene) Anderson, is born in Grand Forks, North Dakota. She is known for a string of hits throughout the 1970s and 1980s, most notably her 1970 country-pop hit (I Never Promised You a) Rose Garden. She was married to songwriter, Glenn Sutton.

1950–United Nations troops recapture Seoul from North Korean forces.

1950–Indonesia is admitted to the United Nations.

1953–Rationing of sugar ends in the United Kingdom.

1954–Japanese rail ferry, Toya Maru, sinks during a typhoon in the Tsugaru Strait, Japan, killing 1,172 people.

1957–The musical, West Side Story, by Leonard Bernstein and Stephen Sondheim, premieres in New York.

1959–Typhoon Vera, the strongest typhoon to hit Japan in recorded history, makes landfall, killing 4,580 people and leaving nearly 1.6 million others homeless.

1960–The first televised debate between Presidential candidates Richard M. Nixon and John F. Kennedy takes place in Chicago, Illinois.

1961–Bob Dylan starts a two-week stay as the opening act for the Greenbriar Boys at Gerde’s Folk City in Greenwich Village, New York.

1964–The single You Really Got Me, by The Kinks, is released in the U.S.

1969–The Beatles’ LP Abbey Road is released on the Apple label in the U.K. The Beatles 11th album. This was the final album recorded by The Beatles, but not the last to be released.

1970–John Lennon begins recording songs for his John Lennon/Plastic Ono Band album: he will finish on October 27th. Ringo Starr plays drums on the album.

1973–Concorde makes its first non-stop crossing of the Atlantic in record-breaking time.

1980–Thirteen people die and 211 are injured at the Oktoberfest terror attack in Munich, Germany.

1981–Nolan Ryan sets a Major League baseball record by throwing his fifth no-hitter.

1983–A Soviet nuclear false alarm incident takes place. Military officer, Stanislav Petrov, identifies a report of an incoming nuclear missile as a computer error and not an American first strike.

1983–Australia II wins the America's Cup, ending the New York Yacht Club's 132-year domination of the race.

1984–The United Kingdom and China agree to a transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong, that will take place in 1997.

1984–Shelly Manne, drummer, composer, and bandleader, dies of a heart attack in Los Angeles, California, at age 64. Two weeks before his sudden death, he was honored by the City of Los Angeles in conjunction with the Hollywood Arts Council, when September 9, 1984 was declared "Shelly Manne Day." Most frequently associated with West Coast jazz, he was known for his versatility, playing in a number of other styles, including Dixieland, swing, bebop, avant-garde jazz and fusion. Manne rose to stardom when he became part of the working bands of Woody Herman and Stan Kenton in the late 1940s and early 1950s, winning awards and developing a following at a time when jazz was extremely hot in America.

1989–Paul McCartney begins his “Get Back” tour (in which he plays several Lennon-McCartney compositions live for the first time) at the Drammenshallen, Dramen, Norway.

1991–A group of scientists (four men and four women) begin a two-year stay inside “Biosphere 2,” a sealed structure in Oracle, Arizona. They had planned to have no contact with the outside world: to grow their own food and live peacefully together as future pioneers in a harsh and alien world. Unfortunately, the outside world had to intervene a few times: to get rid of an ant invasion, to pump in oxygen, to tend to a health emergencies, and to bring in forgotten necessities (like makeup). The scientific team managed to last out the term, but they were half-crazy and half-starved when U.S. Marshals led them out two years later.

1997–A Garuda Indonesia Airbus A300 crashes near the airport in Medan, Indonesia, killing 234 people.

1997–An earthquake strikes the Italian regions of Umbria and the Marche, causing part of the Basilica of St. Francis at Assisi to collapse.

2000–Anti-globalization protests in Prague (some 20,000 protesters) turn violent during the IMF and World Bank summits.

2000–The MS Express Samina sinks off Paros, in the Aegean Sea, killing 80 passengers.

2000–Actor, Richard Mulligan, dies of colorectal cancer in Los Angeles, California, at age 67. He is best known for the role of Burt Campbell on the sitcom Soap. He appeared in the films 40 Pounds of Trouble, Love with the Proper Stranger, The Group, Little Big Man, S.O.B., Teachers, and The Heavenly Kid.

2002–The overcrowded Senegalese ferry, MV Le Joola, capsizes off the coast of the Gambia, killing more than 1,000 people.

2008–Swiss pilot and inventor, Yves Rossy, becomes the first person to fly a jet engine-powered wing across the English Channel.

2008–Actor, Paul Newman, dies of lung cancer in Westport, Connecticut, at age 83. He was one of the most popular and well-repected actors of the 20th century with fans in multiple generations. He appeared in the films The Silver Chalice, Somebody Up There Likes Me, The Helen Morgan Story, Until They Sail, The Long Hot Summer, The Left Handed Gun, Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, The Young Philadelphians, The Hustler, Paris Blues, Sweet Bird of Youth, Hud, The Outrage, Harper, Hombre, Cool Hand Luke, Winning, Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid, The Sting, Absence of Malice, The Verdict, Harry & Son, Mr. and Mrs. Bridge, and Nobody’s Fool. He was a co-founder of Newman's Own, a food company from which Newman donated all post-tax profits and royalties to charity: as of December 31, 2014, these donations totaled $429.3 million.

2009–Typhoon Ketsana hit the Philippines, China, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos and Thailand, causing 700 fatalities.

2010–Scottish aid worker, Linda Norgrove, and three Afghan colleagues are kidnapped by members of the Taliban in the Kunar Province of eastern Afghanistan.

2010–Actress, Gloria Stuart, dies of lung cancer in Los Angeles, California, at age 100. She appeared in the films Roman Scandals, Poor Little Rich Girl, Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm, Island in the Sky, My Favorite Year, Mass Appeal, Wildcats, and Titanic.

2014–A mass kidnapping occurs in Iguala, Mexico.

2016–Republican Party nominee, Donald Trump, and Democratic Party nominee, Hillary Clinton, hold the first debate of the 2016 presidential election at Hofstra University in Hempstead, New York.

2016–The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) launches cyclone detection satellite SCATSAT-1 (and seven other satellites) into orbit from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota. The launch successfully demonstrates the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle's capability of placing satellites in multiple orbits in a single launch.

2016–A gunman opens fire at a shopping center in Houston, Texas, injuring nine people before being shot dead by police.

2017–Twitter experiments with doubling its 140 character limit to 280 characters for all languages except Japanese, Chinese, and Korean.

2017–The King of Saudi Arabia issues a decree allowing women to be issued driving licenses. Saudi Arabia is the world's last sovereign state that does not allow women to drive.

PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: King William II of England; Daniel Boone; George Gershwin; the Automat; Julie London; Bessie Smith; the Nixon-Kennedy Presidential Debate; Shelly Mann; and Paul Newman; and Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton at the first 2016 Presidential Debate.

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